Overview of Western Art, Week 2 Notes
Overview of Western Art, Week 2 Notes ART 225-02
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by THeller97 on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 225-02 at Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania taught by Pitluga, Kurt W in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Overview of Western Art in Art History at Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
EGYPTIAN ART CONTINUED ● Hippopotamus associated with the god of darkness ● To ensure consistent proportions, the egyptians developed methods of design used for centuries ○ Canon system of proportions ○ Composite view ■ Head in profile ■ Eyes frontal ■ Torso frontal ■ Legs and feet in profile ■ Unnatural, but easy view of human body ● Sculpture had realistic view rather than composite view ○ Sculptures usually were one foot in front of another to represent stepping into the afterlife Old Kingdom Egypt ● Stepped pyramid of King Djoser, Saqqara ○ C.26302611 BCE ○ Imhotep is architect ■ Basic concept is to be stacking one mastapa over another for form. ■ “Step pyramid” ● Great pyramids of Giza ○ At any time of the day, one side will hold the sun’s full glare while the opposite casts a full shadow ○ Menkaure ■ Smallest pyramid ○ Khafre ■ Middle pyramid ○ Khufu ■ Chamber in middle of pyramid for king’s tomb ■ First and largest pyramid ○ “Benben” ■ Pyramid shaped emblem of Ra (Sun God) ■ “Heliopolis” ● Center of sun cult ● Great Sphinx, Giza, Fourth Dynasty ○ Questioned to be a portrait of King Khafre with the body of a lion ■ Sphinx is greek for mystery ● Valley Temple, Pyramid of Khafre, c. 2500 BCE ○ Postinlintel system like Stonehenge ● Sculpture of Khafre ■ Diorite ■ Blocky proportions ■ Brother, falcon god Horus to watch over and protect Khafre Egypt New Kingdom (c. 16001100 BCE) ● Focus on temples dedicated to gods ● Thebes is capital of New Kingdom Valley of the Kings ● Eighteenth dynasty kings abandoned the practice of marking tombs with pyramids. Instead, they excavated tombs out of the rock of the Valley of the Kings west of Thebes. ○ Entrances were concealed after burial ● Hatshepsut’s Temple ○ Chief wife and half sister of Thutmose II ○ Ruled with Thutmose III until her death in 1458 BCE ○ Temple was built beside Eleventh Dynasty temple of Mentuhotep II ○ Hatshepsut usually depicted as man due to features ○ “Pharoah” ■ Great House ● Temple of AmunRa, Karnak Temple Complex ○ Sun God ○ Religious structure were non congregational and restricted to only King and High Priests ○ Hypostyle Hall ■ No windows to keep dark appearance ■ “Room whose roof is supported by columns” ● Pylon Gate ○ Massive stone entrance gate ○ Slopping walls to characterize gate ○ Exterior would be brightly decorated with illustrations of gods and goddesses ○ Obelisk ■ Monolithic, tapering stone ■ Usually in front of Pylon gate to mark entrance into temple ■ Covered in hieroglyphs to depict dedication to Gods ■ Romans brought back obelisks back to homelands are a war trophy ● Used to symbolize christian victory ■ Popular grave markers in the nineteenth century New Kingdom: Amarna Revolution (c.13771358 BCE) ● Amenhotep IV → Akhenaten ○ “One who is effective on behalf of Aten” ○ Created monotheism ○ Worship of the “Aten” ■ Sun disc ○ Extreme feminine features ● Nefertiti ○ “The beautiful one has come” ○ Crystal inlaid eyes ■ Created more realism for the royal family ● “Amarna Style” ○ Shows unusual intimacy of royal families ○ Limestone ● Queen Tiy ○ Akhenaten’s mother ○ Chief wife of Amenhotep III ○ Sculpture of dark wood of a yew tree, precious metals, and semiprecious stones for details ■ Achieves a delicate balance between idealized features and signs of aging ○ Sculpture went through two stages of design: ■ First the queen was adorned with gold jewelry and a silver headdress ornamented with golden cobras ● Identified her with the funerary goddess Isis and Nephthys ■ Later a wig embellished with glass beads and topped with a plumed crown concealed the headdress. ● Changes indicated that they occurred to suit the beliefs on Akhenaten’s monotheistic religion. New Kingdom: Tomb of Tutankhamun (c. 1340) ● His mother was his sister ● Believed Akhenaten was father ● Received throne between eight and ten years old and died in late teen years ● Assassinated to end line of Akhenaten ● Throne of Tutankhamun ● Three coffins preserved the king’s body ○ Weighed approximately 250 pounds ● Deathmask ○ Approximately 50 pounds of gold CHAPTER 5 GREEK ART (480146 BCE) ● Greek set standards for many future things in life ○ Government ○ Architecture ○ Philosophy ○ Olympics ● Early greece was not a unified country and constantly fighting with others ● Each citystate had their own god or goddess Humanism ● Deals with physical, emotional, and ○ Greek culture says the the human mind set for everything ● For first time, gods and goddesses take for of human body rather than animals ○ Also possessed emotions such as hate, love, etc. ● Archaic ○ Old ● Kouros Statue ○ Kouros is greek for youth ● Pose is much like those of egyptian sculptures ● Greek sculptures are more focused on replicating muscular structure and human features ○ Human form has been “liberated” from flat stone Golden Age ● Peak of greeks culture ● Polykleitos ○ Sculpted “Doryphoros” ■ Spear Bearer ■ Roman copy ● Greeks don't make statues based on a set pattern, instead study the human body for details ● Contrapposto ○ Weight shift ○ Italian for counterpoise ● The Canon of Polykleitos ○ Canon ■ Rule or law ○ System of harmonic proportions ● Idealism ○ Plato stated for artists to go with idealism rather that realism to ignore flaws made by others ● No emotions ● Strive for the ideal ● Myron ○ Sculpture of The Discobolus (450 BC) ■ Discus thrower ■ Capture a frozen moment of time at peak of throw before follow through ■ No emotion present, symmetrical face features ● Bronze Statue of Poseidon (Zues) (450 BC) ○ Bronze sculpted by technique called: Lost Wax Technique ■ Create clay model ■ Cover clay with layer of wax ■ Encase model in plaster ● Wax will melt away to leave gap between clay and plaster ■ Poured bronze in ■ Remove plaster and file and perfect features ○ Casting separate pieces could also be done and put together Late Classical Period ● Aphrodite of Knidos (330 BC) ○ Found on Knidos ○ Copied from Rome ○ Women were always clothed in greek culture unlike this sculpture AGE OF ALEXANDER AND HELLENISTIC PERIOD (32020 BC) ● Alexander The Great ○ Founded approximately 70 cities ○ At the time of his death, all of his cities had been divided into three main kingdoms ● Emphasis on death and suffering in art ● Dying Trumpeter (Gaul)(230220 BC) ○ Great deal of realism rather than idealism ○ Gauls frequently wore chokers ■ Gold, silver, bronze metals ● Bronze were typically for the poor who couldn't afford gold or silver ● Laocoon (50BC) ○ Three figures and snakes carved out of one block ○ Inspired by he Odyssey ○ Laocoon was a trojan priest wishing to warn the Trojans of the Greek deception of the Horse ■ Poseidon killed Laocoon and his sons with serpents before he could warn the trojans ● “Altar of Zeus” ○ Open courtyard for sacrifice ○ “Giagontomachy Frieze” ■ Battle of the gods and the giants ○ “Athena battling Alkyoneos ■ Much movement ● Old Drunken Woman ○ Realism ○ Evokes sympathy from viewers ● Nike of Samothrace (190 BC) ○ Nike ■ Goddess of victory ○ Create expression that Nike was landing on ship Greek Golden Age Architecture ● Pericles ○ NOT an artist ○ “First citizen of Athens” ● Golden age started with victory of Persian War (497479 BC) ● Battle of Thermopylae ● Battle of Salamis Athenian Acropolis ● Acropolis ○ Acro High ○ PolisCity
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