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Overview of Western Art, Week 2 Notes

by: THeller97

Overview of Western Art, Week 2 Notes ART 225-02

Marketplace > Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania > Art History > ART 225-02 > Overview of Western Art Week 2 Notes

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About this Document

These notes cover the rest of Egyptian art and a good portion of Greek Art. The rest of Greek art will be available in next week's notes.
Overview of Western Art
Pitluga, Kurt W
Class Notes
WesternArt, Art, greekart, egyptianart
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by THeller97 on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 225-02 at Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania taught by Pitluga, Kurt W in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Overview of Western Art in Art History at Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania.


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Date Created: 09/08/16
EGYPTIAN ART CONTINUED    ● Hippopotamus associated with the god of darkness  ● To ensure consistent proportions, the egyptians  developed methods of design used for centuries  ○ Canon system of proportions  ○ Composite view  ■ Head in profile  ■ Eyes frontal  ■ Torso frontal  ■ Legs and feet in profile  ■ Unnatural, but easy view of human  body    ● Sculpture had realistic view rather than composite view  ○ Sculptures usually were one foot in front of another to represent stepping into the  afterlife    Old Kingdom Egypt  ● Stepped pyramid of King Djoser, Saqqara  ○ C.2630­2611 BCE  ○ Imhotep is architect  ■ Basic concept is to be stacking one mastapa over another for form.  ■ “Step pyramid”  ● Great pyramids of Giza  ○ At any time of the day, one side will hold the sun’s full glare while the opposite  casts a full shadow  ○ Menkaure  ■ Smallest pyramid  ○ Khafre  ■ Middle pyramid  ○ Khufu  ■ Chamber in middle of pyramid for king’s tomb  ■ First and largest pyramid  ○ “Ben­ben”   ■ Pyramid shaped emblem of Ra (Sun God)  ■ “Heliopolis”  ● Center of sun cult  ● Great Sphinx, Giza, Fourth Dynasty  ○ Questioned to be a portrait of King Khafre with the body of a lion  ■ Sphinx is greek for mystery  ● Valley Temple, Pyramid of Khafre, c. 2500 BCE  ○ Post­in­lintel system like Stonehenge  ● Sculpture of Khafre  ■ Diorite  ■ Blocky proportions  ■ Brother, falcon god Horus  to watch over and protect Khafre      Egypt ­ New Kingdom (c. 1600­1100 BCE)  ● Focus on temples dedicated to gods  ● Thebes is capital of New Kingdom    Valley of the Kings  ● Eighteenth dynasty kings abandoned the practice of marking tombs with pyramids.  Instead, they excavated tombs out of the rock of the Valley of the Kings west of Thebes.  ○ Entrances were concealed after burial  ● Hatshepsut’s Temple  ○ Chief wife and half sister of Thutmose II  ○ Ruled with Thutmose III until her death in 1458 BCE  ○ Temple was built beside Eleventh Dynasty temple of Mentuhotep II  ○ Hatshepsut usually depicted as man due to features  ○ “Pharoah”  ■ Great House  ● Temple of Amun­Ra, Karnak Temple Complex  ○ Sun God  ○ Religious structure were non congregational and restricted to only King and High  Priests  ○ Hypostyle Hall  ■ No windows to keep dark appearance  ■ “Room whose roof is supported by columns”  ● Pylon Gate  ○ Massive stone entrance gate  ○ Slopping walls to characterize gate  ○ Exterior would be brightly decorated with illustrations of gods and goddesses  ○ Obelisk  ■ Monolithic, tapering stone  ■ Usually in front of Pylon gate to mark entrance into temple  ■ Covered in hieroglyphs to depict dedication to Gods  ■ Romans brought back obelisks back to homelands are a war trophy  ● Used to symbolize christian victory  ■ Popular grave markers in the nineteenth century    New Kingdom: Amarna Revolution (c.1377­1358 BCE)  ● Amenhotep IV → Akhenaten  ○ “One who is effective on behalf of Aten”  ○ Created monotheism  ○ Worship of the “Aten”  ■ Sun disc  ○ Extreme feminine features   ● Nefertiti  ○ “The beautiful one has come”  ○ Crystal inlaid eyes  ■ Created more realism for the royal family  ● “Amarna Style”  ○ Shows unusual intimacy of royal families  ○ Limestone  ● Queen Tiy  ○ Akhenaten’s mother  ○ Chief wife of Amenhotep III  ○ Sculpture of dark wood of a yew tree, precious metals, and semiprecious stones  for details  ■ Achieves a delicate balance between idealized features and signs of  aging  ○ Sculpture went through two stages of design:  ■ First the queen was adorned with gold jewelry and a silver headdress  ornamented with golden cobras  ● Identified her with the funerary goddess Isis and Nephthys  ■ Later a wig embellished with glass beads and topped with a plumed  crown concealed the headdress.  ● Changes indicated that they occurred to suit the beliefs on  Akhenaten’s monotheistic religion.    New Kingdom: Tomb of Tutankhamun (c. 1340)  ● His mother was his sister  ● Believed Akhenaten was father  ● Received throne between eight and ten years old and died in late teen years  ● Assassinated to end line of Akhenaten  ● Throne of Tutankhamun  ● Three coffins preserved the king’s body  ○ Weighed approximately 250 pounds  ● Deathmask  ○ Approximately 50 pounds of gold      CHAPTER 5 GREEK ART (480­146 BCE)  ● Greek set standards for many future things in life  ○ Government  ○ Architecture  ○ Philosophy  ○ Olympics  ● Early greece was not a unified country and constantly fighting with others  ● Each city­state had their own god or goddess  Humanism  ● Deals with physical, emotional, and   ○ Greek culture says the the human mind set for everything  ● For first time, gods and goddesses take for of human body rather than animals  ○ Also possessed emotions such as hate, love, etc.  ● Archaic  ○ Old  ● Kouros Statue  ○ Kouros is greek for youth  ● Pose is much like those of egyptian sculptures  ● Greek sculptures are more focused on replicating muscular structure and human  features  ○ Human form has been “liberated” from flat stone  Golden Age  ● Peak of greeks culture  ● Polykleitos  ○ Sculpted “Doryphoros”  ■ Spear Bearer  ■ Roman copy   ● Greeks don't make statues based on a set pattern, instead study the human body for  details  ● Contrapposto  ○ Weight shift  ○ Italian for counterpoise  ● The Canon of Polykleitos  ○ Canon  ■ Rule or law  ○ System of harmonic proportions  ● Idealism  ○ Plato stated for artists to go with idealism rather that realism to ignore flaws made  by others  ● No emotions  ● Strive for the ideal  ● Myron  ○ Sculpture of The Discobolus (450 BC)  ■ Discus thrower  ■ Capture a frozen moment of time at peak of throw before follow through  ■ No emotion present, symmetrical face features  ● Bronze Statue of Poseidon (Zues) (450 BC)  ○ Bronze sculpted by technique called: Lost Wax Technique  ■ Create clay model  ■ Cover clay with layer of wax  ■ Encase model in plaster  ● Wax will melt away to leave gap between clay and plaster  ■ Poured bronze in   ■ Remove plaster and file and perfect features  ○ Casting separate pieces could also be done and put together    Late Classical Period  ● Aphrodite of Knidos (330 BC)  ○ Found on Knidos  ○ Copied from Rome  ○ Women were always clothed in greek culture unlike this sculpture    AGE OF ALEXANDER AND HELLENISTIC PERIOD (320­20 BC)  ● Alexander The Great  ○ Founded approximately 70 cities  ○ At the time of his death, all of his cities had been divided into three main  kingdoms  ● Emphasis on death and suffering in art  ● Dying Trumpeter (Gaul)(230­220 BC)  ○ Great deal of realism rather than idealism  ○ Gauls frequently wore chokers  ■ Gold, silver, bronze metals  ● Bronze were typically for the poor who couldn't afford gold or silver  ● Laocoon (50BC)  ○ Three figures and snakes carved out of one block  ○ Inspired by​ he Odyssey  ○ Laocoon was a trojan priest wishing to warn the Trojans of the Greek deception  of the Horse  ■ Poseidon killed Laocoon and his sons with serpents before he could warn  the trojans  ● “Altar of Zeus”  ○ Open courtyard for sacrifice  ○ “Giagontomachy Frieze”  ■ Battle of the gods and the giants  ○ “Athena battling Alkyoneos  ■ Much movement  ● Old Drunken Woman  ○ Realism  ○ Evokes sympathy from viewers  ● Nike of Samothrace (190 BC)  ○ Nike  ■ Goddess of victory  ○ Create expression that Nike was landing on ship    Greek Golden Age Architecture  ● Pericles  ○ NOT an artist  ○ “First citizen of Athens”  ● Golden age started with victory of Persian War (497­479 BC)  ● Battle of Thermopylae  ● Battle of Salamis    Athenian Acropolis  ● Acropolis  ○ Acro­ High   ○ Polis­City 


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