Chapter 2 Class Notes and Vocabulary
Chapter 2 Class Notes and Vocabulary
Popular in Human Sexuality
Popular in Psychology
This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kirsten Notetaker on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Lewis University taught by Lisa Brown in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychology at Lewis University.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Male Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 3 Notes External anatomy: the penis External anatomy: o Penis o Scrotum Functions: o Expel urine o Deposit sperm in the vagina for fertilization o Sexual pleasure Physical aspects: o Soft and hangs between the legs when unaroused o Hardens and erect when aroused o Skin is very loose o Slight curve Shaft o Physical aspects: Body of the penis Includes the urethra o Functions: Passes sperm and urine Includes muscles Glans o Physical aspects: Tip of penis Includes urethral opening Set apart from shaft by the corona Covered by foreskin (in uncircumcised males) o Functions: Most sensitive structure The foreskin o Partially covers the glans (head of the penis) o Function: Keeps glans soft and protects from trauma Sexual pleasure (many sensory receptors) o Removed 1-2 days after birth in the US 60% of boys in America More common in white males o Debate Popular during Victorian era (decreases masturbation and homosexuality) Hygienic reasons: avoid smegma and infection Religion Sexual satisfaction External anatomy: the scrotum Physical aspects o Sac located beneath penis o Contains testicles (testes) o Sparsely covered in hair o Outside of body cavity Body temperature - 98.6 degrees Sperm production - 93 degrees Functional aspects o Production of sperm o Sweat glands o Muscle fibers Contract and relax Internal male anatomy: The testicles (testes) The ejaculatory pathway The seminal glands The testicles Physical aspects o Drop from abdominal cavity before birth o Suspended in scrotum o Equal in size o One hangs lower than the other Right handed - left is lower Functional aspects o Gonads (same tissue as ovaries) o Produce sperm Millions of sperm start production each day o Produce male hormones The duct system Intricate system of canals Sperm production: o Testicles o Epididymus o Vans deferens o Ejaculatory duct o Prostate gland o Urethra During orgasm: o Sperm pushed into ducts o Mixed with seminal and fluid to form semen The prostate gland Physical aspects o In front of rectum, below bladder o Found only in men o Surrounds top of urethra and neck of bladder Functional aspects o Production of seminal fluid o Secretes antibiotic o Sexual pleasure The Cowper's glands Physical aspects o Two pea-sized glands o Beneath prostate gland Functional aspects o Secrete alkaline fluid (pre-ejaculatory fluid) o Neutralized acidity of urethra in men o Often contains sperm Male Hormones Endocrine system Testosterone Hormones Chemicals released into the bloodstream Responsible for: o Growth o Metabolism o Water retention o Reaction to stress o Development and maintenance of reproductive system o Influences sexual behaviors The endocrine system Network of glands that secrete hormones Includes testicles and ovaries Adrenal glands: produce small amounts of o Testosterone o Estrogen o Progesterone Testosterone Functions: o Secondary sex characteristics development Broad shoulders Body/facial hair Deep voice o Assists in sperm production o Sexual desire o Sexual activity Testosterone: fact or fiction? Determines masculinity? Increases human aggression? o Testosterone fluctuates daily, monthly, seasonally, and over the life span o Highest: night/in the morning, midsummer - autumn Testosterone causes increase in sexual desire? o Increase in sexual activity from age 12-14 o Decrease around age 40 o Sexually active men have high levels o Men with low testosterone have little sexual desire Sperm Chromosomes contain genes 46 chromosomes total (23 from sperm) 23 chromosome is the sex chromosome o X chromosome - female o Y chromosome - male Half of man's sperm have X chromosome; half have Y chromosome Eggs only have X chromosome Female: XX Male: XY Sperm production takes approximately 100 days Sperm development Age 30-50: decrease in motility, volume, percentage of normal sperm Low sperm count/motility causes o Stress o Vitamin deficiencies o Drug use - marijuana, cocaine, caffeine o Environmental pollutants Car exhaust - motility Herbicides/pesticides - low sperm count Chapter 3 Vocabulary Penis - from the Latin word for "tail," the penis is the external male genitalia Scrotum - the pouch of skin that holds the testicles Glans - from the Latin for "acorn," the glans is the enlarged head of the penis Corona - the raised edge of the penis that separates the glans from the shaft Meatus - the opening at the tip of the glans Frenulum - the thin strip of flesh on the underside of the penis that connects the shaft to the glans Foreskin/prepuce - the fold of skin that covers the head of the penis in uncircumcised males Smegma - a think and malodorous substance that can accumulate under the foreskin in uncircumcised men Circumcision - the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis Corpora cavernosa - two cylinders of erectile tissue that run along to upper part of the penis Corpus spongiosum - erectile tissue that runs along the underside of the penis and encloses the urethra Urethra - tubular structure that serves as a passageway for both urine and semen Crura - the inner branches of the penile shaft Kegel exercises - exercises that involve the clenching and unclenching of the muscles of the pelvic floor Perineum - the sensitive skin between the genitals and the anus Pubic hair - the hair, often somewhat coarse and stuff, that grows in the pubic region just above the external genitals Testes - the male gonad that produces sperm and testosterone Gonad - the reproductive organ that produces gametes Gamete - the male or female reproductive cell - the sperm or egg Spermatic cord - the cord like structure containing blood vessels, nerves, and the vas deferens that runs from the abdomen down to each testicle Cryptorchidism - undescended testicles Seminiferous tubules - long convoluted tubes in the testes where sperm is produced Sertoli cells - supportive cells that secrete hormones, nurture developing sperm, and form the blood-testes barrier Interstitial cells of Leydig - cells that synthesize and secrete testosterone and other androgens, interstitial is a medical term that means no stand between, interstitial cells of Leydig are found between the seminiferous tubules of the testes Epididymis - the portion of the ejaculatory pathway where sperm from each epididymis to the ejaculatory duct Ampulla - the sac-like swelling at the end of each vas deferens and the urethra Vasectomy - the cutting of the vas deferentia to prevent sperm from entering the ejaculate Ejaculate - when used as a noun, it is another work for semen Ejaculatory duct - the part of the ejaculatory pathway that passes through the prostate and connects the vas deferens and the urethra Seminal fluid - the white milky substance produced by the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and Cowper's gland that provides nutrition and protection for the sperm Semen - the fluid released during ejaculation, which is made up of sperm and seminal fluid Seminal vesicles - two glands that produce a thick, alkaline secretion that makes up most of semen Prostate gland - a gland that surrounds the urethra, which produces a fluid that is added to semen Cowper's glands/bulbourethral glands - add a small amount of fluid to the volume of semen Hormone - a chemical substances that is produced in one organ and carried through the bloodstream to affect another part of the body Endocrine system - a glandular system that produces hormones Positive feedback - a control mechanism by which a change sets off a response that increases the initial change Negative feedback - a control mechanism by which a change sets off a response that counteracts the initial change Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) - hypothalamic hormone that stimulates the pituitary gland to release luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Luteinizing hormone (LH) - a pituitary hormone that causes the production and release of testosterone in males Hypothalamus - a part of the brain involved in hormone release, biological rhythms, emotions, and sex drive Pituitary gland - produces hormones that control other glands and many bodily functions including growth, metabolism, and reproduction Homeostasis - maintenance of the body's stable internal environment Testosterone - produced by the tests and in small amounts by the ovaries, the hormone stimulates development of male sexual characteristics, bone and muscle growth, and libido Androgens - a family of hormones that promote and maintain male physical characteristics Secondary sexual characteristics - traits (other than those that are part of the reproductive system) that distinguish males and females Adrenal glands - a pair of glands that sit atop the kidneys and produce androgens, as well ass hormones that control metabolism, fluid balance, and blood pressure Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) - a potent male hormone involved in prenatal development of the penis and scrotum Estradiol - one of the "female" hormones responsible for female sex characteristics, as well as reproductive, bone, and brain development in both sexes Andropause - also called androgen deficiency in aging males (ADAM), andropause is a gradual decline in a man's energy and sex drive caused by diminished levels of androgens that occur with aging Anabolic - the metabolic process of building tissue Angrogenic - relate to the development or maintenance of masculine characteristics Steroid - a type of lipid molecule with a multiple-ring structure Sperm - the male gamete Acrosome - the enzyme-containing cap on the head of the sperm Chromosome - a component in the nucleus of the cell that contain genes Gene - a sequence of DNA that gives information for making proteins Autosome - one of 22 pairs of non-sex chromosomes Sex chromosome - the X and Y chromosomes Spermatogenesis - the production of sperm Spermatogonia - a stem cell that will become a sperm Primary spermatocyte - an immature male germ cell containing 46 chromosomes Secondary spermatocyte - an immature male germ cell containing 46 chromosomes Meiosis - the process of cell division in the egg and sperm Spermatid - an immature sperm cell with 23 chromosomes Spermatozoa - a mature sperm cell Androgen-binding protein - a substance, produced by Sertoli cells, that binds testosterone Hypospadias - a congenital condition in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis rather than at the end Chordee - a downward curvature of the penis, often associated with hypospadias Peyronie's disease - curvature of the penis caused by the growth of fibrous scar tissue Phimosis - a tight, non-retractable foreskin Priapism - a prolonged and often painful erection Varicocele - a dilated vein in the spermatic cord Prostatitis - an inflammation of the prostate gland, usually caused by bacteria Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)- an enlargement of the prostate gland, not related to infection or cancer Prostate specific antigen (PSA) - a protein produced by the prostate; PSA levels are elevated with prostate cancer and BPH
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