PSYC 2010: Chapter 3 (Week 4)
PSYC 2010: Chapter 3 (Week 4) PSYC 2010
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashleigh McClure on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2010 at Auburn University taught by Lucia Lazarowski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Chapter 3: Biologyand Behavior 8/29/16 4:40 PM • The Nervous System ○ Network of cells that carry information to and from all parts of the body ○ Responsible for everything we feel, think and do. ○ 3 main functions § Input § Process § Output ○ Brain and spinal cord • Anatomy Of A Neuron ○ Neuron § Cells that transmit information in the nervous system ○ Dendrites § Receive signals from other neurons ○ Soma § Cell body-integration from dendrites ○ Axon § Transmits neural message to cell body ○ Myelin Sheath § Insulates axon and helps transmission ○ Terminal Buttons § End of axon where chemical signals are housed ○ **Know this and be able to label the places on the cartoon** ○ Neural communication starts with ction potentiafiring) § Electrical message is the action potential □ Don’t need to know extra info from book about potassium and shit ○ All- Or-None Principle § Every action potential fires at the same rate and power □ One is not weaker or stronger ○ How Do Neurons Communicate § Neurons do not touch! They are separated by synapses § How does the signal get from one neuron to another? □ When action potential reaches the end of a neuron: ® A neurotransmitteris released ◊ A chemical that transmits signal from one neuron to the next ® Floats across the synapse to a receptor on the next neuron • Neurotransmitters Bind into receptorson the receiving neuron ○ ○ Extras are cleaned up through the reuptake § Acetylcholine □ Motor control over muscles ® Example: black widow bite causes extreme amounts of acetylcholine and shocks the body § Epinephrine (Adrenaline) □ Energy § Norepinephrine □ Arousal and vigilance ® Example: "fight or flight" § Serotonin □ Emotional states and impulsiveness § Dopamine □ Reward and motivation § GABA □ Anxiety reduction, intoxication (through alcohol) § Endorphines □ Pain reduction, reward • Drugs ○ Drugs produce effects by acting on NT's § Agonist □ Mimic □ Enhance ® Example: morphine is an agonist for endorphins ® Example: cocaine blocks reuptake of dopamine § Antagonist □ Inhibit ® Example: anti -depressants • Types Of Neurons ○ Sensory § Sensations tothe brain ○ Motor § Movement signals from brain ○ Interneurons § Connect sensory and motor for spinal reflexes • Nervous System ○ Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain and spinal cord § • Phrenology ○ Study of bumps in the skull that corresponded to mental functions ○ Wrong § But regions are specialized for different functions □ Broca's Area ® Area specialized for language • Brain Structures Brain Stem (Medulla Oblongata) ○ § Extension of the spinal cord § Most basic survival functions □ Heart rate, breathing, swallowing ,vomiting § Damage can lead to death ○ Cerebellum § Essential for motor function □ Coordination, balance □ Proprioception ( unconscious perception of movement and spatial orientation arising from stimuli within the body itself) ○ Thalamus § Brain's secretary □ Routes sensory information § Partially shuts gate during sleep ○ Hypothalamus § Basic motivations □ Hunger, thirst, sex, sleep § The four F's □ Feeding □ Fighting □ Fleeing □ F**king ○ Hippocampus § Memory § People and animals can have different sized hippocampus □ Taxi driver's brains in London were larger § Way to remember: □ Hippo that visits old college campus and has good memories ○ Amygdala Fear § • The Brain ○ Cerebral Cortex § Wrinkled outer layer Complex thought processes § • The Four Lobes** • Need to know where it's located and what's associated with what ○ Occipital § Vision Temporal ○ § Auditory § Damage can result in inability to understand language ○ Parietal § Touch § Somatosensory Cortex □ "Map" of skin sensations corresponding to parts of the body ○ Frontal § Complex mental functions □ Planning □ Personality □ Decision making □ Social behavior ® Empathy, guilt, sense of self □ Motor Cortex ® "Maps" onto movement • Cerebral Cortex ○ Divided into two symmetrical cerebral hemispheres § Contralateral input and control □ Left side of brain controls right side of the body □ Right side of brain controls left side of the body § Connected by orpus callosum Split Brain § □ Sever corpus callosum to treat extreme epilepsy ® Hemispheres no longer communicate, mind is split in half ® Led to the discovery of hemispheric specialization ◊ Example- left side controls language • Cerebral Hemispheres ○ Hemi neglect § Damage to the right parietal region can cause "blindness" to the left visual field □ Example: some people with this will only apply makeup to one side of the face • Review: Alcohol And The Brain ○ Loss of balance/Motor skills: Cerebellum ○ Slow reaction time: Frontal lobe, cortex ○ Memory: Hippocampus Alcohol poisoning/death: Brain stem ○ • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) ○ "Not in the center" ○ Allows CNS to communicate with sensory systems ○ Sonatic Nervous System § Voluntary muscles □ Driving, ○ Autonomic Nervous System § Involuntary muscles, organs, glands □ Heart rate, hormones ® Sympathetic Nervous System ◊ Redirect energy sources to prepare for action ◊ Energy and blood -> vital or-> non-vital organs ◊ Sympathetic Division } "Fight or Flight" ◊ Adaptive significance of stress response } Increasing blood flow to heart and major muscles -> ready for action ® Parasympathetic Nervous System ◊ "The danger is gone! Phew, calm down!" ◊ "Rest and digest" restores the body to normal state. } Increases salivation, slows heart, constricts pupils and stimulates tear glands, constricts bronchi • Endocrine System ○ Works with Nervous System to regulate psychological activity ○ Secreteshormonesdirectly into bloodstream to organs, influencing thoughts and behavior. Nervous System § □ Electrochemical signals, fast § Endocrine System □ Hormones, slow ○ Controlled by th ituitary gland § Sends signals to other glands to release hormones □ Which brain structure? ® Hypothalamus § Neural activati-> hypothalamus-> • Hormones Effect On Behavior Oxytocin ○ § Pregnancy, parenting, social behavior, milk production, parent/child bonding, labor, mate choice, intimacy □ "the love hormone" § While ovulating, heterosexual women are more attracted to more masculine me □ What Would Darwin Say? (WWDS) ® This would happen because more desirable partners are ones that help you/children survive ◊ The bigger/brawnier someone is the more they can provide in a primitive landscape • How Does The Brain Change? ○ Neural Plasticity § Brain is capable of changing as a result of experience, drugs or injury § Reorganization □ Hemispherectomy □ Phantom Limb ® Intense sensation that the amputated body part still exists ○ Critical Periods § Enriched environments lead to bigger, more well -developed brains ○ Neurogenesis § New neurons are produced • Female vs. Male Brains ○ Some differences § Males □ Larger size □ More use of spati-related regions ® WWDS ◊ Males mobilized to find resources/mates ® Nuture ◊ Society pushes certain stimuli towards males/females } Example: more men are engineers/math majors § Females □ More use of language area