Week 1 Notes
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lisa Thein on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CSD 269 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Summer Chilton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Culture vs. Community Big D vs. Little d Deaf deaf Little “d” deaf big “D” Deaf Cultural model Medical/pathological model Deafness as a Audiologically deaf diﬀerence Technology focused Pro-ASL Community A group of people who share common goals and cooperate in achieving these goals Occupies a particular geographic location Has some degree of freedom to organize the social life and responsibilities of its members What communities do you belong to? Can you belong to more than one community? Explain. How do you decide what community to belong to? Can someone else decide what community you will be part of? Community continued… A Deaf community ◦ Group of people who live in a particular location ◦ Share common goals ◦ In various ways work toward achieving these goals A Deaf community may include persons who are not themselves Deaf, but actively support the goals of the community and work with Deaf people to achieve them. ◦ Who are the individuals that are not Deaf that are part of the Deaf community? Interpreters Family members Audiologists pports the Deaf culture/community Educators Culture A set of learned behaviors of a group of people who have their own ◦ Language ◦ Values ◦ Rules for behavior ◦ Traditions A person may be born into a culture A person may grow up in one culture and later learn the language, values, and practices of a diﬀerent culture. (From “The Deaf Community and the Culture of Deaf People,” Carol Padden) Deafness as a Cultural Identity Deafness is not seen as a disability ◦ Deaf people are a linguistic & cultural minority Emphasizes vision as a positive, eﬃcient alternative to hearing ◦ Focus is on visual communication Sign language is seen as equal to spoken language ◦ Communication for Deaf people can include, but should not be limited to speech In education, focus on subject matter rather than communication methodology ◦ Work to expand ALL communication skills Support socialization within the deaf community as well as the larger community Openly acknowledge Deafness Goal of professional involvement is to work WITH Deaf people Stages of Membership in Deaf Culture Not all members of the deaf culture move through all the stages Stage 1: Cultural hearing ◦ Deafness = medical pathology ◦ Medicine and technology are the answers to dealing with deafness ◦ To be hearing is better than to be deaf Deaf people should try to act as hearing as possible ◦ Hearing professionals are wise and informed ◦ Use of residual hearing, speech training, and mainstreaming will encourage deaf children to join hearing society, which is the ultimate goal Stages continued… Stage 2: Culturally Marginal ◦ Usually the ﬁrst identity developed by deaf children born into hearing families ◦ Don’t ﬁt in with either the deaf world or the hearing world ◦ Communication diﬃculties with both English and ASL ◦ Sense of isolation, often bitterness ◦ May use English-like signing, but usually actively disapprove of ASL ◦ Shifting loyalties between Deaf and hearing Stages continued… Stage 3: Immersion into the Deaf World ◦ Enthusiastic and uncritical acceptance of everything related to Deaf culture ◦ Idealization of the deaf world and disparagement of the hearing world ◦ Black-and-white thinking: Deaf can do no wrong, hearing can do no right ◦ Reversal of hearing values: ASL is superior to English Deaf should never use their voices Only Deaf professionals should run Deaf programs Simultaneous communication should never be used ◦ Generalized anger, especially towards hearing people Stages continued… Stage 4: Bicultural ◦ Clear cultural pride as a Deaf person Recognizing that both Deaf and hearing people have strengths and weaknesses ◦ Some level of comfort in both Deaf and Hearing situations ◦ Respect for both English and ASL as distinct languages of equal value ◦ Ability to oppose oppression while maintaining appropriate alliances with trustworthy hearing people ◦ Deep personal Deaf identity ◦ Appreciation and acceptance of diﬀerent visions of cultural Deafness Variables Aﬀecting Membership in Deaf Culture Age at onset of deafness ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ What groups do you think are more likely to adopt Deaf culture? More Variables… Extent of the hearing loss ◦ ◦ ◦ Levels of hearing loss Profound= 90dB+ Severe= 71-90dB Moderate= 41-70 Mild= 25-40dB http://www.nzgirl.co.nz/images/articles/story/hearing_june07_chart.jpg Some people with mild to moderate hearing loss consider themselves Deaf. Some people who are profoundly deaf are culturally hearing. Some hearing loss is necessary for complete inclusion in Deaf Culture. More variables… Presence of other disabling conditions Parental inﬂuence ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Parent inﬂuence may prevent access to the Deaf community during childhood and adolescence ◦ Proximity to others who are Deaf ◦ Cultural and Racial Identity Development Pre-encounter ◦ Lack of knowledge about and denial of racial and cultural diﬀerences Encounter ◦ First exposure to deaf community ◦ Eﬀect is diﬀerent in early and late deafened people Immersion ◦ Characterized by anger, especially towards dominant groups in society ◦ Rejection of everything pertaining to majority society ◦ Embracing everything connected to the minority culture Internalization ◦ Bicultural ◦ Integrating cultural diﬀerence in an aﬃrmative way ◦ Intolerant of oppression ◦ Proud of heritage and community ◦ But able to recognize limitations of community and positive aspects of majority society (Helms, 1990, Glickman, 1997) Remember… Not all deaf people are Deaf & not all Deaf people are deaf.
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