CSD 216: Week 3 Notes
CSD 216: Week 3 Notes CSD 216
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hailey Hansen on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CSD 216 at University of Mississippi taught by Lisa Fratesi Ivy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Cognitivist Jean Piaget – Swiss psychologist Emphasized stages of development based on cognitive hypothesis Cognitive, perceptive, and social achievements must be in place for language achievements to emerge Concepts and Behaviors Central to Development Concepts o Object permanence o Causality o Meansends Behaviors o Imitation o Play o Communication Object Permanence Refers to the knowledge that objects can exist in time and space even if they cannot be observed Only when the child understands that things are permanent can he represent them cognitively Causality The knowledge that certain events cause other events This occurs once the child realizes that he and others can be a source of action This gives them means available for language to become a vehicle of change MeansEnd Behavior A critical feature in language development used to solve problems When a child is able to figure out ways to accomplish goals, he understands the concept of meansend Imitation Duplication of a behavior Developing the ability to construct an internal representation of the behavior of others to imitate them Play Provides children with opportunities for learning things such as sharing and social interaction Communication The child will use communication abilities, especially language, to facilitate advances in cognitive development Four Stages of Piaget’s Theory 1. Sensorimotor Intelligence (birth2 years of age) – behaviors are reflexive and motor. Children interact with their environment in physical ways, and cannot manipulate ideas in a conceptual sense. Birth to 1 Month – child is almost totally reflexive 1 4 Months – sensory awareness of objects; beginning of imitation 4 8 Months – beginning of object permanence and babbling; understands cause 812 Months – communication is intentional 1218 Months – almost complete understanding of object permanence; excellent imitation; first meaningful words 1824 Months – fully developed object permanence and meansend; pretend play; word use with intent 2. Preoperational Thought (27 years of age) – a child develops a lot of language in this stage. They begin to think conceptually, but are also egocentric, meaning they are unable to take on another person’s perspective. 3. Concrete Operational (711 years of age) – the child develops the ability to think logically in dealing with concrete or physical problems 4. Formal Operations (1112 years of age) – cognitive abilities become fully developed in this stage. A child can reason and think logically. In other words, they have gained the ability to manipulate ideas in their heads without any dependence on concrete manipulation, and can now perform mathematical calculations. The most important aspect of this stage is inferential reasoning, meaning the child has the ability to think about things which the child has not actually experienced and can draw conclusions from their thinking. Universal Grammar Describes the system of rules that are consistent in all the world’s languages, meaning the hierarchy and organization of learning are the same, no matter what language you learn. Noam Chomsky – he believed human beings are born with a capacity for language and that language must be biologically based. He created the Language Acquisition Device (LAD), which is a module constant for all the world’s languages that contains the universal rules of a language. Moving from Theory to Practice 1. Prevention Phonological awareness to prevent reading problems 2. Intervention or Remediation Programs to help with disorders 3. Enrichment Building a language rich environment
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