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CSD 216: Week 3 Notes

by: Hailey Hansen

CSD 216: Week 3 Notes CSD 216

Marketplace > University of Mississippi > CSD 216 > CSD 216 Week 3 Notes
Hailey Hansen

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About this Document

These notes cover more theories and theorists, and what they believed.
Normal Development of Communication
Lisa Fratesi Ivy
Class Notes
communication, cognition, development, Language, Theory, practice
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hailey Hansen on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CSD 216 at University of Mississippi taught by Lisa Fratesi Ivy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.

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Date Created: 09/08/16
Cognitivist  Jean Piaget – Swiss psychologist  Emphasized stages of development based on cognitive hypothesis  Cognitive, perceptive, and social achievements must be in place for language  achievements to emerge Concepts and Behaviors Central to Development  Concepts o Object permanence o Causality o Means­ends  Behaviors o Imitation o Play o Communication Object Permanence  Refers to the knowledge that objects can exist in time and space even if they cannot be  observed  Only when the child understands that things are permanent can he represent them  cognitively Causality   The knowledge that certain events cause other events  This occurs once the child realizes that he and others can be a source of action  This gives them means available for language to become a vehicle of change Means­End Behavior  A critical feature in language development used to solve problems  When a child is able to figure out ways to accomplish goals, he understands the concept  of means­end Imitation  Duplication of a behavior  Developing the ability to construct an internal representation of the behavior of others to  imitate them Play  Provides children with opportunities for learning things such as sharing and social  interaction Communication  The child will use communication abilities, especially language, to facilitate advances in  cognitive development Four Stages of Piaget’s Theory 1. Sensorimotor Intelligence (birth­2 years of age) – behaviors are reflexive and motor.  Children interact with their environment in physical ways, and cannot manipulate ideas in a conceptual sense.  Birth to 1 Month – child is almost totally reflexive  1­ 4 Months – sensory awareness of objects; beginning of imitation  4­ 8 Months – beginning of object permanence and babbling; understands cause  8­12 Months – communication is intentional  12­18 Months – almost complete understanding of object permanence; excellent  imitation; first meaningful words  18­24 Months – fully developed object permanence and means­end; pretend play;  word use with intent 2. Preoperational Thought (2­7 years of age) – a child develops a lot of language in this  stage. They begin to think conceptually, but are also egocentric, meaning they are unable  to take on another person’s perspective. 3. Concrete Operational (7­11 years of age) – the child develops the ability to think  logically in dealing with concrete or physical problems 4. Formal Operations (11­12 years of age) – cognitive abilities become fully developed in  this stage. A child can reason and think logically. In other words, they have gained the  ability to manipulate ideas in their heads without any dependence on concrete  manipulation, and can now perform mathematical calculations.  The most important aspect of this stage is inferential reasoning, meaning the  child has the ability to think about things which the child has not actually  experienced and can draw conclusions from their thinking. Universal Grammar  Describes the system of rules that are consistent in all the world’s languages, meaning the hierarchy and organization of learning are the same, no matter what language you learn.  Noam Chomsky – he believed human beings are born with a capacity for language and  that language must be biologically based.  He created the Language Acquisition Device (LAD), which is a module constant for all  the world’s languages that contains the universal rules of a language. Moving from Theory to Practice 1. Prevention  Phonological awareness to prevent reading problems 2. Intervention or Remediation  Programs to help with disorders 3. Enrichment  Building a language rich environment


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