GEOG 1010: Middle America Part 1 (Chapter 3)
GEOG 1010: Middle America Part 1 (Chapter 3) GEOG 1010
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashleigh McClure on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1010 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Jim Norwood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Global Geography in Geography at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Middle America1 9/2/16 10:27 AM • Major Geographic Qualities ○ "Central America" § Includes Caribbean islands ○ Fragmented- physically and politically ○ Barrier between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, land bridge between North and South America ○ Culturally diverse and complex ○ America's least developed territories, some finding new opportunities ○ Economic reforms, industrialization in Mexico, a member of NAFTA • Regions of Middle America ○ Greater Antilles § Cuba, Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti) Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and the Cayman Islands ○ Lesser Antilles § The northerlyLeeward Islands, the southeasteWindward Islands, and thLeeward Antillejust north Venezuela. • Physical Geography ○ Land Bridge § Between North and South America ○ Archipelago § Greater and Lesser Antilles ○ Natural Hazards § Earthquakes § Volcanoes § Hurricanes § Mudslides § Landslides □ 2001, Santa Tecla El Salvador as a result from an earthquake • Culture Hearth ○ Source Area from which radiated ideas, innovations, and ideologies that changed the world beyond ○ Middle America Hearths Aztecs § □ Higher altitudes □ Pinnacle of a long sequence of civilizations in the Valley of Mexico □ Empire in Central Mexico □ Tenochtitlán ® Founded about 1300 AD ® Population more than 100,000 at conquest ® Site of modern Mexico City § Maya □ Lower altitudes □ 3000 years ago □ Classic period (200-900 AD) □ Honduras, Guatemala, Belize □ Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico • Highland Mesoamerica ○ North of modern Mexico City ○ First urban area in the Americas • Legacy of Colonialism Land alienation ○ § Appropriated for colonial commercial interests § Converted to cash cropping for exports ○ Results § Famine § Poverty Migration § § Decreasing agricultural diversity • Colonial Spheres ○ Know map where people settled** • Spanish Colonial Town ○ Layout was mandated by Spanish colonial law ○ Result is regularity in city layout through Spanish Middle and South America § Example: Central Square, Patzcuaro, Mexico • Mainland vs. Rimland ○ Mainland § Greater isolation accessibility § Moderate climate § Hills/plateaus § Euro/Amerindian § Mestizo § Haciendas ○ Rimland § Greater location § Tropical lowland § Islands § Euro/African § Mulatto § Plantations Mulatto vs. Mestizo ○ Mulatto § A person of mixed ancestr- black and white parents ○ Mestizo § A person of mixed ancestr-Spaniard (Spain) and Native American parents • Hacienda ○ Spanish cattl-holding institution ○ Purpose was land -holding not pro-generating ○ Not efficient but high social prestige ○ Year-round jobs, workers lived on the land ○ Self-sufficient but surplus for domestic market ○ Diversified crops grown on relatively small plots of land • Plantations ○ Production oriented for export ○ Efficiency is key ○ Typically a single cash crop (monocrop) § Example: cotton (Tara from Gone With The Wind) ○ Seasonal employment ○ Purpose was for commercial profit ○ Market vulnerability ○ Capital and technology imported
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