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LING 253 Week 2 Notes

by: Kelsey Mulford

LING 253 Week 2 Notes LING253

Marketplace > University of Delaware > LING253 > LING 253 Week 2 Notes
Kelsey Mulford

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About this Document

These are the class notes for week two of LING 253. These notes cover IPA of consonants, place of articulation, manner of articulation, and features of allophones.
Laboratory Phonetics
Thomas Parrell
Class Notes
Linguistics, allophones, consonants, phonology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Mulford on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING253 at University of Delaware taught by Thomas Parrell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.


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Date Created: 09/08/16
LING 253 Notes for 9/6/16 and 9/8/16 Class Notes for 9/6/16 Review  We need IPA so that there is one sound for every symbol and one symbol for every sound. This is called a one-to-one match. This allows us to know the correct pronunciation of every word.  We use slashes to represent a phonemic transcription and brackets to represent a phonetic transcription.  The use of the phonetic alphabet is called a phonetic transcription. Stress Syllabic stress may be shows by a vertical dash immediately after the stressed syllable. This mark does not go before the vowel, it goes before the whole syllable. In English, primary stress is shown in a lot of our words to differentiate them. (using insult the verb vs. insult the noun, notice the changes in pronunciation). Useful Diacritic The sounds /m/, /n/, and /l/ can have a consonant peek in some words. This is marked by a little vertical dash underneath the syllable with the peek. For example, in the word “chasm” the /m/ sound is the entire second syllable by itself so it is marked with a vertical dash in the phonetic transcription. The focus of the next couple classes will be on articulation. Articulation There are two main dimensions to consonant articulation, the place of articulation (made at lips, teeth, father back, ect.) and the manner of the articulation (this is how the sound is made and what the articulators are doing to make the sound).  Place of Articulation: where in the mouth the sound is made o When we produce a sound, that usually involves contact between an active articulator (the thing that moves) and a passive articulator (what the other thing moves into, the part that does not move) o We name the places of articulation after the passive articulator, this is because the active articulators (mainly the tongue) moves around a lot and is used in lots of different sounds o The major places of articulation are:  Bilabial- the upper and lower lips touch, means “two lips”, in the labial group (the group of sounds made with the lips)  Labiodental- when the lower lip touches the upper teeth, means “lip/teeth”, in the labial group  Interdental- tongue in-between the upper and lower teeth, means “between the teeth”, in the coronal group (the group of sounds made with the front part of the tongue)  Dental- tongue just touches the teeth but does not be in- between them, languages usually just have interdental or dental sounds and not both, in the coronal group  Alveolar- the tongue touches the alveolar ridge (between the teeth and the hard palate), in the coronal group  Palato-alveolar- the tongue touches the front part of the hard palate, in the coronal group  Retro-flex- the tongue touches behind the alveolar ridge, in the coronal group  Palatal- the tongue touches between the hard palate and the soft palate, in the dorsal group (group of sounds made with the body of the tongue)  Velar- the tongue touches the velum in front of the uvula, in the dorsal group  Uvular- the tongue touches the uvula, in the dorsal group  Manner of Articulation: broad category meaning how the sounds is produced (how narrow is the constriction, is it symmetrical, how long does the constriction occur for, ect.) o The major manners or articulation are:  Stops- they can be oral stops (the oral is omitted when writing) or they can be nasal stops, the vocal tract is totally closed when producing these sounds, the difference between oral stops and nasal stops is whether or not the velum is closed, some examples are [p], [b], [k], [m], and [n]  Fricatives- made by quick air flow that is generated through a very small constriction in the vocal tract, some examples are [f], [v], [z], and [h]  Approximants- the vocal tract articulators are close to each other but not close enough to produce a fricative, these have normal voicing, examples include [w] (this sounds actually has two constrictions, it is a bilabial approximant and a labio-velar approximant), [j] and [l]  Affricates- these are two sounds put together, a combination of stops and fricatives, these are found in words like church and judge  Tap/Flap- a very brief closure, English only has one alveolar flap, involves full or partial closure of the vocal tract, different from a stop because a tap/flap lasts for a much shorter period of time  Voiced vs. Voiceless o This further splits the sounds into a three-dimensional system, this shows whether the vocal chords are vibrating (like in the [b] sound) or not (like in the [k] sound) These qualities allow us to describe every consonant sound in the English language! English Stops There are three places of articulation for the English stops (bilabial, alveolar, and velar) and they can be voiced or voiceless. However, there is some variation that we can predict (allophones). All stops have a waveform including bursts (what is made after the pressure build-up in the mouth from the stop), and the vowel onset (when the vocal chords start to vibrate after the sound is made).  Word Initial: When consonants are at the beginning of a sound, bursts usually have the same amount of time when producing voiced and voiceless sounds, similar to the length of a clap which is short and consistent. However, the vowel onset is longer in a voiceless stop than in a voiced stop. Class Notes for 9/8/16 Review We looked at the place of articulation and the manner of articulation for how consonants are produced. We also looked at a third dimension, which is known as voicing. We looked at an IPA chart for consonants and examined all of the terms found on this chart. In voiced stops, there is little to no aspiration meaning that the burst and the vowel onset are both short. However, for voiceless consonants the vowel onset is much longer than the burst. English Stops (cont.)  Word-medial: For voiceless stops in-between two vowels, there is no sound coming from the vocal chords (no amplitude on the waveform. For voiced stops between two sounds, there is some sound coming from the vocal chords (a small amplitude on the waveform). The waveforms used to show these sounds on a phonetic level.  Clusters: Clusters such as [sta], when compared to [da], show us that the [t] and [d] sounds are similar on a phonemic level.  Finally: In final position, there is unpredictable free variation: aspirated (can only occur after voiceless stops because it is a voiceless sound), released (the lips open at the end), unreleased (the lips don’t open, shown by a small bracket in the upper right corner) Aspirated [P] Word initial (pa) [P] Word-medial, in clusters, finally (spa) Closed [P] Word-final (app) Aspirated [B] Word initial (ba) [B] Word-medial, finally (aba) Closed [B] Finally (ab) The type of ending stop in a word also affects the length of the vowel. Vowels are longer before voiced consonants than before voiceless stops. For example, the vowel in the word “bad” is longer than the vowel in the word “bat”.  In the word mitten, the “t” sound is produced by a glottal stop. A /t/ in word-medial position will often result in a glottal stop.  If there is an unstressed syllable before a /t/ or a /d/, it will be produced as a flap. Laterals When /l/ occurs at the end of a word, it becomes velarized (which means it is pronounced more towards the velum, this is also known as a “dark l” and is represented by a tilde through the middle of the l). When an /l/ is in word initial position, it is light. When an /l/ is in word-medial position, it can be either dark or light. Rhotics When an “r” sound comes directly after a voiceless consonant, that “r” sound becomes devoiced or voiceless. The “r” sound is produced by constrictions at the lips, the alveolar/palatal region, or the pharyngeal region. Fricatives Fricatives in final positions are devoiced. *This also happens in voiced stops. We are able to tell the difference between words like pad and pat because of the length of the vowel, not because of the vowel they end in.* Nasals The velum can either be closed or open. Nasal consonants are produced when the velum is open so that air can leave through the nose. Vowels often before nasalized before nasal consonants. This is noted by a small tilde above the vowel. For example, the vowel in mom is nasalized but the mop is not. Place Assimilation Place assimilation occurs when one consonant matches a neighboring consonant in place of articulation.  When alveolar consonants come before dental fricatives, they become dental. For example, the “d” in the word “width” becomes a dental sound. Syllabic Consonants This happens when a consonant takes the place of a vowel, like in the word “cuddle”. The ‘l’ in the word “cuddle” takes over the place of the “e”. Final Notes We can describe consonants by using place of articulation, manner of articulation, and voicing. English consonants show much variation but this is usually very predictable.


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