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Week 1 notes

by: Sofia Berkey

Week 1 notes Sci 121

Marketplace > Elon University > Sci 121 > Week 1 notes
Sofia Berkey
Elon University
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About this Document

these cover notes from the first week of class (tuesday and thursday)
Science without borders
Dr. Eugene Grimley
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sofia Berkey on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Sci 121 at Elon University taught by Dr. Eugene Grimley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.

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Date Created: 09/08/16
What is Science? ● Science is a way of asking and answering questions about the physical universe ○ It involves manipulating matter, making observations and collecting data ● Most of our understanding of the physical universe comes from the interaction of light and matter or the generation of light by matter ○ Light is the primary probe of the universe   Ch 1-How to build a universe >Summarizing BIG points 1. Survival is avoidance of extinction both individually and collectively 2. Earth is ONLY bus ride for us 3. Our Earth is hot and very violent 4. Our favorite star is the sun….how did and when did our solar system form >Something from nothing: 1. As a singularity-followed by expansion in less than 1 million billion miles across 2. 98% all matter created in first minutes 3. Arno Penzius​ and ​Robert Wilson Other Questions… ● Is there life elsewhere in the universe ● What conditions for life would be projected to be required? ○ Hypothesize ■ Goldilocks zone w/r to energy source (star) ■ Rocky/soil ■ Water (can’t be frozen or gas) ■ Atmosphere (the safe amount of O2 at 20%) ■ A heat containing blanket (such as CO2, CH4) The Role of Science Understand the Universe and Our life’s conditions Presuppositions of Science 1. Objectivity really exists 2. The universe is knowable 3. The universe’s operation is regular and predictable The Scientific Method K-9 Hypothesis (Domino Barks) “The five biggest ideas in Science” 1. Make observation(s) 2. Create hypothesis (tentative) 3. Prediction (risk taking...I bet....) 4. Experiment-true/false (learn from either) … then recycle (by revising the hypothesis) Black Boxes ● There is a limit to how small an object is before it can’t be seen… Serendipity and Progress ● When using the scientific method, scientists do not always find the expected results ● Sometimes accidental discoveries not sought have an even greater payoff ● These are not just accidents: ○ Vulcanization of Rubber​-Charles Goodyear (1839) -sulfur + rubber + heat ○ cis-Platin-​ anti prostate cancer chemotherapeutic agent and class of chemotherapeutics Occam’s Razor ● “The accepted hypothesis should be the simplest hypothesis that explains any given phenomena”-William of Occam (English Philosopher) Observation ● History ○ Greek philosophers ○ Middle Ages ● Observation-no manipulation ● Experiment-designed manipulation Oxford College Debate Q: how many teeth does a horse have? Observations vs. Experiments ● Astronomers ○ Observations involve viewing nature without manipulation ● Scientists ○ Experiments involve designing reproducible experiments, recording quantitative and qualitative data, and drawing conclusions, hence m nature. Pseudoscience ● Belief, dogma ● Ideas not testable Evaluation of a claim 1. Are the facts true as stated? 2. Is there an alternative explanation? ​ 3. Is the claim ​falsifiable? 4. Have claims been tested? 5. Do claims require unreasonable changes in the data? Astronomy≠Astrology -Astrology (not science) -Astronomy (science) Research ● Basic research ○ The conducting of scientific experiments for the purpose of developing new knowledge and understanding. ○ Not yet applied research. ● Applied research ○ The application of basic research to provide a technical advancement for commercial use. Communication in Science ● Work is done in open collaboration and communication via: ○ Refereed​ Publications*-Journals & Monographs ○ Oral Presentations-Conferences ○ Poster-Conferences ○ Non-refereed​ Publications-World Wide Web ○ Private Communication ○ *Cornerstone of Science Measurements ● Accuracy​-relationship to true value ● Precision-​ relationship between measurements (agreement) ● Accuracy ≠ Precision


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