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Psychology 100 Chapter 1 notes

by: Bianca Notetaker

Psychology 100 Chapter 1 notes PSYC 100-001

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Bianca Notetaker
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Peter Frecknall class
Basic Concepts in Psychology
Dr. Peter Frecknell
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bianca Notetaker on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 100-001 at George Mason University taught by Dr. Peter Frecknell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 09/08/16
Tuesday, September 13, y Thinking Critically with Psychological Science I. Humans cannot rely solely on intuition and common sense I. 3 Phenomena illustrate this (Gets in the way of thinking critically) : A. Hindsight bias ­ basic assumptions (knew it already) B. Judgmental overconfidence ­ knowing more than you think you know C. Tendency to perceive patterns in random events Need for Psychological Science I Why is intuition overused and errors made? A. CONTROL! B. Hindsight bias, overconfidence, and our tendency to perceive patterns in random events often lead us to overestimate our intuition. C. But scientific inquiry can help us sift reality from illusion  D. Humans have a basic need to feel in control of our world and fate Scientific Attitude I. Curiosity ­ wondering if you wonder about II. Skepticism ­ maybe I know if, but maybe i don't (questioning common sense) III. Humility ­ is it possible i could be wrong about my own study Scientific Method I. Scientific method is the process of testing ideas about the world by A. Setting up situations that test our ideas 1. B. Making careful, organizing observations  C. Analyzing whether data fits with theory 1 Tuesday, September 13, y IV. Theories lead to Hypotheses lead to Research and Observations confirm, reject and revise Theories V. Theory A. Explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events VI. Hypothesis A. Testable prediction, often implied by a theory VII.Operational defintion A. Carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a  research study VIII. Replication A. Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in  different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants  and circumstances  IX. Testing hypothesis and refining theories A. Description ­ to observe and record behavior (with detail and accuracy minus  assumption) B. Correlation ­ to detect naturally occurring relationships (measure of how closely  two factors vary together) (when two variables change in close relation to each  other w/o any causal relationship)  1. Positive correlation ­ 2 variables change in same direction (both up or both  down) Ex. more food, gain weight ­ less food, lose weight 2. Negative correlation ­ 1 variable gets smaller and the other variable gets  bigger in proportion Ex. polar ice cap and big toe 3. Range of correlation +1.00 to ­1.00 4. Suggests the possibility of cause­effect, does not prove it  C. Causation ­ one variable changes and causes the other variable to react (cant  prove this) 2 Tuesday, September 13, y D. Experiments ­ to explore cause and effect X.  Experimentation A. Double­blind procedure: Eliminating bias 1. Neither those in the study nor those collecting the data know which group is  receiving the treatment 2. Treatment’s actual effects can be separated from potential placebo effect B. Placebo Effect 1. Effect involves results caused by expectations alone Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life: Describing Data I. Mode: Most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution XI. Mean: Arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then  dividing by the number of scores; can be distorted by few atypical scores XII.Median: Middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are  below it II. Measures of variation reveal similarity or diversity in scores. A. Range: Difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution B. Normal curve: most scores fall near the mean Comparing Research Methods TABLE Protecting Research Participants: Studying and Protecting Animals I. Professional associations and funding agency guidelines A. Universities: IRB ethics committees; laboratory regulation and inspection B. British Psychological Society (BPS): Guidelines for reasonably natural living  conditions and companions for social animals 3 Tuesday, September 13, y C. American Psychological Association (APA): Guidelines for humane treatment  and minimization of infection, illness, and pain D. European Parliament: Standards for animal care and housing 4


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