Ethical Guidelines in Research
Ethical Guidelines in Research PSYC3980
Popular in Research Methods in Psychology
Brittany Ariana Borzillo
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Popular in Psychology
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ariana Borzillo on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC3980 at University of Georgia taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychology in Psychology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Ethical Guidelines Terms Debriefed: carefully informed about the study’s hypothesis and what they were subjected to as well as what other participants in the study may have been subjected to Informed Consent: each person learns about the research project, knows the risks and benefits, and decided whether they want to participate Milgram Study Early 1960s Obedience in the presence of an authority Participant was the “teacher” who had to electrically shock the student (actor) whenever given an incorrect answer o Shock went up by some number of volts each time As voltage increases the actor starts to scream about discontinuing the experiment, at some point there’s a thud, and silence following When participants protest, the man in the white coat prompts him to continue by taking responsibility for anything that may happen to the “student” but not forcing the “teacher” to stay Milgram conducted 18+ variations of this study o At least 40 participants per variation About 65% administered a lethal 45-volt shock Ethical Questions o Extremely stressful to “teacher” participants o What were the lasting effects of the study Despite debriefing and showing the teacher the unharmed learner, many participants were dramatically affected by knowing that they would cause someone that much harm because an authority figure asked them to Hired a psychiatrist to interview participants months later about their current state of well- being o Balancing Risk to Participants with Benefit to Society Milgram (after trial 1) expected the level of anxiety Some scientists feel this study was unethical Core Ethical Principals Belmont Report o A commission of physicians, ethicists, philosophers, scientists, and other citizens gathered at the Belmont Conference Center in Eldridge, Maryland at the request of Congress o Intensive discussion of basic ethical principals o Called in part because of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study o Three main principles for guiding ethical decision making intended for use in psychology, medicine, sociology, anthropology, and basic biological research Respect for Persons Individuals participating in research should be treated as autonomous agents o Free to make up their own mind about participation o Entitles to the precaution of informed consent o Researchers are not allowed to mislead people about risks or benefits o Coercion is prohibited 2 Researchers explicitly or implicitly suggest that those who do not participate will suffer a negative consequence o Unduly influencing is prohibited Researchers offer an incentive too attractive to refuse Financially unfit could be easily persuaded Some people have less autonomy, so they are entitled to special protection when it comes to informed consent o Children, minorities, disabled Beneficence Researchers must take precautions to protect research participants from harm and to ensure their well-being Carefully assessing the risks and benefits of research Physical harm and psychological harm are both concerns The degree of help that could be provided to the general public is a factor Justice Fair balance between the kinds of people who participate in research and the kinds of people who benefit from it Principles in Practice Must be interpreted for use o Panels the same way the constitution is interpreted APA Ethical Principles 5 Ethical Principles 3 o Respect for Persons o Beneficence o Justice o Integrity E.g. professors are obligated to teach you accurately, and therapists are required to stay up to date on the empirical evidence for therapeutic techniques o Fidelity and Responsibility E.g. a clinical psychologist who teaches in a university may not serve as a therapist to one of their students, and a psychologist must avoid sexual relationships with their students or clients 10 Ethical Standards o Institutional Review Boards (Standard 8.01) A committee responsible for interpreting ethical principles and ensuring that research using human participants is conducted ethically Most colleges, hospitals, and other research facilities have their own IRB Mandated by federal law If the research is being done with federal money (grants) a designated IRB is required At least 5 people Some specified backgrounds o Scientist (one) o Community member with no affiliation to institution (one or more) o Academic interests outside of science (one) o Designated prisoner advocate (one) Specific questions for anything involving children 4 Researchers submit detailed application with procedure for informed consent, methods, intended participants, provisions for protecting privacy o Informed Consent (Standard 8.02) Obligation to explain the study to participants in everyday language and give them a chance to decide about their participation Often provided via written document If deciding to participate signs a copy for the research team and a copy for themselves Inform whether data is confidential o Dispensing with Informed Consent for Research Researchers may not need to have participants sign informed consent forms if the study is not likely to cause harm and if it takes place in an educational setting Anonymous questionnaire Naturalistic observation in low-risk setting o Deception (Standard 8.07) Researchers withholding some details of the study from participants Not allowed to lie and deny respect for persons or beneficence o Debriefing (Standard 8.08) Describe the nature of the deception and explain the necessity o Research Misconduct Data Fabrication (Standard 8.10) Data fabrication researchers invent data that fir their hypothesis instead of what actually happened Data falsification researchers influence study’s results (e.g. cherry-picking) 5 Plagiarism (Standard 8.11) Representing someone else’s words or ideas as your own Avoidable by citing all sources used that contributed to your idea Animal Research (Standard 8.09) Ethical points for the care of animals in research laboratories Must care for animals humanely Must use as few animals as possible Animal Welfare Act o Animals in research are protected by government oversight o Applies to lab animals, pet stores, zoos, circuses, and agriculture o Must have institutional board of ethics Institutional animal care and use committee Must comply with federal guidelines Member requirements Veterinarian Practicing scientist familiar with ethical guidelines – goals and procedures of animal research Member who has no affiliation with the institution Research must be important o In an extreme case the government will discontinue funding to the entire institution o Care guidelines 6 Replacement Researchers should find alternatives to animals in research when necessary Refinement Researchers must modify experimental procedures and other aspects of animal care to minimize animal distress Reduction Researchers should adopt experimental designs and procedures that require the fewest animal subjects possible Many support use of animals in research Many are unsure of whether animals are treated humanely enough Animal Rights Groups o Animal rights are different than animal welfare o PETA o Animals are as likely as humans to endure suffering o Feel that animals are experiencing undue burden that is benefitting a different species Balancing Rights, Welfare, and Research o Research in psychology is conducted responsibly to please everyone as much as possible o Researchers defend the use of animal subjects with three arguments 7 Animal research has resulted in many benefits to both humans and animals Contributed countless valuable lessons to many scientific fields Made fundamental contributions to basic and applied research Ethical Decision Making Balancing of priorities Benefits of research? Harm to participants? Humanity? 8
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