"Wk 5, Reading Notes (09/06) - Chapter 3
"Wk 5, Reading Notes (09/06) - Chapter 3 4100
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslea Motley on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 4100 at University of Georgia taught by Kara Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Introduction: Sensation and Perception Emphasizes fact that rapid/unconscious process is not necessarily simple, or simple to investigate – but the opposite is probably true. Presents basic study of perception in vision and hearing; focus on the visual and auditory sensory registers (“because they are our most prominent intersections with the world”) 3.1: Visual Sensation and Perception Examine the processes of sensation and perception 3.1.1: Gathering Visual Information Vision is NOT the result of something (i.e., wave) coming out of your eye toward the thing you are viewing. It is triggered when a reflection of light from an object hits our eyes Saccades: fast movements by which the eyes sweep from one point to another; French for ‘jerk’; can take anywhere from 25ms to 175ms Fixations: movements/pauses interrupting saccades; takes up to 200ms just to plan and start the movement Planning involves area MT along the dorsal stream of visual processing Assumes range of 250-300ms for an entire fixation-saccade cycle; at this rate there are 3-4 visual cycles per second Each cycle registers a separate visual scene; during the saccade, there is suppression of normal visual processes, even those that do NOT involve the current scene For the most part, we take in visual information during a fixation Change Blindness: failure to notice changes in visual stimuli when those changes occur during a saccade Competitions-like situation in visual attention: o On one hand, attention must be interruptible so that we can react quickly to unexpected stimuli. o On the other hand, visual attention should not be too interruptible. We cannot constantly switch focus from one thing to another; this would destroy visual continuity. Inattention Blindness: when attention is directed elsewhere, and one fails to see the object that she/he is looking directly at; due to some extent, to our lack of attention to an object 3.2 (read all except 3.2.3 & 3.2.5) 3.2: Pattern Recognition Scrutinize the process by which we identify patterns and objects Pattern recognition does not occur instantly, but does happen automatically and spontaeneously. In many ways it is a problem-solving process. During perception, person needs to identify the nature of distal objects in the world based on the proximal images reaching the retina. 3.2.1.: Gestalt Grouping Principles Laid out in mid20th century Identify characteristics of perception in which ambiguities in a stimulus are resolved to help determine which objects are present; aimed more at processing info about the whole of an object, rather than simple, and only, building up a mental representation from more basic elements. Supported by fMRI neuroimaging work showing some parts of the brain, specifically the lateral occipital lobe and the posterior fusiform gyrus are involved in the processing of whole objects, apart from the occipital brain areas involved in processing individual elements Figure-ground principle: when viewing an image, part of the image is treates as the figure/foreground, which is segregated from the visual info upon which it is sent (background) Closure principle: a person ‘closes up’ an image that has gaps or parts missing, perhaps b/c they are being occluded (blocked) by some other object Proximity: elements that are near to one another tend to be grouped together Similarity: elements that are visually similar in some way, such as having similar color or texture, tend to be grouped together Good continuation: assumes that when an edge is interrupted people assume that it continues along in a regular fashion
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