Week One Cities of the Ancient World
Week One Cities of the Ancient World HIST 202
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katlyn Burkitt on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 202 at Towson University taught by Gadotti in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Lecture Sep. 1 , Sep 6 , and Sep 8th Cities of the Ancient World In class discussion What is a city? (Full class brainstorm on the board) * This was just a brainstorming activity* o High population o Commerce o Culture o Significant size/ Importance o Sense of protection and community o Controls the hinterland (The area beyond the city) o Varied workforce (Craft Specialization) o A system of writing or record keeping o Privileged location that holds meaning for the people o Central Government (Typically housed in a large central building) o Architectural features o Its purpose as a mediator between permanent and seasonal settlements Discussion of Childes Criteria (Page 3 of Ancient Cities) o 1. Concentrations of a relatively large number of people in a restricted area o 2. Developed Social Stratification (Meaning there is a class system, typically based on wealth) o 3. Although most citizens were farmers, some pursued non-agricultural occupations: Crat specialists, priests, traders, administrators, etc. (Meaning a variation in jobs i.e. Craft Specialization) o 4. The production of an economic surplus and its appropriation by a central authority, such as a king or deity o 5. Writing, to record economic activity and the myths, events, and other ideological issues that served to justify the discrepancies between the privileged and lower classes o 6. Exact and predictive sciences, to forecast the weather for agricultural production o 7. Monumental public architecture, which could include such structures as temples, palaces, fortifications, and tombs o 8. Figural art o 9. Foreign trade o 10. Residence-based group membership in which people of all professions and classes could share in a sense of community. An example of Social Stratification based on craft specialization and unequal wealth distribution Lecture Sep. 1 , Sep 6 , and Sep 8 th Rulers Officials/Nobles/ Religious leaders Merchants Artisans Farmers/Agriculture Easily identifiable characteristics o Not all citizens are kin (Blood related) o Close housing o Craft Specialization o High population o Family units are not self-supporting they must rely on other members of the community o Need for record keeping that may or may not be writing Important pages from the Bb Reading (The Ancient City: New Perspectives on Urbanism in the Old and New World) o Pages 6-8 for the diagrams Lecture September 6, 2016 Neolithic Revolution: The transition from Food Procurement to Food production o Food procurement: Hunting/Gathering societies o Food production: Agriculture (Farming) and Animal Husbandry (Raising and herding) Lecture Sep. 1 , Sep 6 , and Sep 8 th Important Dates o Last ice Age 20,000 to 15,000 BP (Before Present which is 1950) The transition from food procurement to food production began However, people did not stop hunting and gathering (Food procurement) instead both methods coexisted For this transition to work people had to be sedentary o Earliest settlements 15,000 to 14,000 BP These were in favorable locations that allowed for full-time settlement Pre-Dates agriculture/ Animal Husbandry Small housing clusters Kept to themselves Interbred Held a preference for Nuclear families (Mother, father, and children) o Domestication of plants and animals specifically dogs 12,000 BP o Domestication of animals for food 11,000 to 9,000 BP Pros and Cons of the transition (Class Discussion) Pros Con Can be permanently sedentary Labor intensive Will need more food (Burn more calories) Predictable source of food Depends on the weather (Making it unreliable) Plants and animals are subject to parasites and diseases which can take out the entire crop or herd Allows for trade There is a risk of impoverishing the soil even if they use the system of Fallow (The system of cycling crops) Removes variation in diet Why did they switch? Origin of Agriculture o Oasis Theory: After the ice age the climate became dry so humans and other organisms were forced together dismissed o Natural Habitation Theory: Domesticated animals originated from the areas their ancestors habituated dismissed o Social Theory: Agriculture developed so a small group could exert control over the rest of the group Not much evidence; dismissed o Cultural Theory: This developed because of religion Set aside o Population Theory: The population got too high to be supported by hunting and gathering. Not much evidence; dismissed Changes seen as the switch occurred (In order) o Domestication of plants and animals Lecture Sep. 1 , Sep 6 , and Sep 8 th o Surplus in goods o Population growth o Craft Specialization o Social Stratification Jericho (As discussed in class, discussed on pgs. 18-20 in the textbook) o Freshwater o Farmland o Fortifications (pg. 18) Stone wall, with internal tower, with stairs leading to it o Domestic Agriculture Wheat and barely o Evidence of Trade Import: Obsidian, turquoise, and cowrie shells Export: Salt, sulfur, and pitch o Evidence of religion Jericho Skulls and Statuettes Found under houses Actual human cells Plastered to recreate human like features Cowrie shells were used as eyes o Homes They were made of mudbrick Round with rounded tops Çatalhöyük o Evidence of Religion o Houses with court yards made of mudbrick and wood o 5,000 to 7,000 People o Overlooks the Konya plane (Meaning there is no real water source the nearest river is the carasmba cay river *belief is that a now dead branch of the river extended to the town*) o Trade o Craft Specialization Evidence in the form of obsidian tools, lead pendants, copper slags, pottery, wooden bowls, etc. o Development of science Metallurgy as shown by the melting of copper and lead o Evidence of herding o Art o Standardized housing September 8, 2016 Map quiz in the beginning of class Brief review from last class Continuation from last class Çatalhöyük o Art Lecture Sep. 1 , Sep 6 , and Sep 8 th Wall paintings/murals Typically depicting hunting scenes Figurines Depicting what was believed to be the mother goddess, sitting on a throne, with two jaguars as arm rests Plaster bull heads They were believed to be shrines to a god like bull creature that was married to the mother goddess Further evidence shows that they may in fact be homes, the bulls representing the economy of the area o Religious evidence Bodies were buried under the living areas of homes These bodies were typically wrapped in skins and buried in baskets This is evidence of the cult of the ancestors o Economy Agricultural society (Cereal, nuts, and legumes) Evidence of herding particularly of cattle (Hence the explanation of the bull heads as part of the economy) Evidence of trade of obsidian Metallurgy (Lead and copper) New material for today o Göbekli Tepe This area predates Jericho and Çatalhöyük 8-acre site in southeast Turkey Was originally identified in the 60’s as a site of interest but excavated in the 90’s Tell (Arabic)/Tepe(Turkish): An artificial mound caused by repetitive habitation and rebuilding on the same site This site has 3 levels of occupation II B II a 7,500 BCE Most important Section *All III 10,000 notes are from this section* BCE Virgin Soil (No habitation) Found on stie o T-Shaped Monoliths They were shaped into round enclosures Lecture Sep. 1 , Sep 6 , and Sep 8 th They have images carved into them depicting wild predators, birds, homes, and stylized humans Believed to be a religious site used by nomadic hunter gatherers around 10,000 BCE o Its existence changes the order of how cities developed From 1. Domestication of plants and animals 2. Food surplus 3. Population increase 4. Craft specialization 5. Social straftification To Craft specialization and social stratification not having to come after domestication/Food surplus/and population increase Evidence o The construction and design of the monoliths required craft specialization (Miners to get the stone, A method of transport, builders, architects, stone masons, artists, etc) o Social stratification was necessary because these groups needed a leader o Criticism Only a small % (Possibly 5% to 10%) has been excavated and only the central site This means homes could be around the site Evidence of food production/Processing Evidence of stone tools It may not even be a religious site It has been argued that they could be homes His view was biased by post-Enlightenment ideologoy that states that living quarters and religious locations had to be separate In ancient societies they were typically the same location Social complexity = Complex society Depends on craft specialization not domestication of plants and animals Villages will be giving way to the first city First Civilization (5,500 BCE) First city (Oruk (3,800 BCE)) Cities of the Ancient World Week One Assignment One Notes Introduction (Pages 1-11) The City Defined (pg. 1-4) *may contain direct quotes* City: An inhabited place o Origin: City and Civilization come from the Latin word Civis (citizen) and Civitas (Community, state, city; Citizenship) through old French “Cite” (Captial City). Latin word Urbs (Urban, Urbanism) o The Romans distinguished between population centers of different sizes oppidum (City/Town) and Vicus (Village) o Cities can be described based on their size as above i.e. a city > town > Village >Hamlet Meaning cities can only exist in relation to another settlement o Cities develop around an area that attracts a large concentration of people, the lure tends to be economic with sources of livelihood based on natural resources or geographical situation advantageous for commerce. The attractions may also be military (if the area is defensible) or ideological (The ruler may have picked it for specific reasons.) o Cities and country sides are mutually dependent o Cities can become characterized by their functions Ceremonial or ritual role which the city may have understood as the center of the universe or reflecting cosmic or divine truths I might also serve as an administration center or commercial center or all three o The social organization of an urban population is socially stratified. The group must be larger than an extended family unit, band, or tribe. Must also be more diversified than a military, political, or religious unit. They cannot all know each other Work differences contribute to the social hierarchy o Socio-Economic Definition: The city is a unit that supports itself economically, and extends its economic and political influence over an area broader than its immediate territory Concentrations of relatively large number of people into a restricted area Developed social stratification Although most citizens were farmers, some pursued non- agricultural occupations The production of an economic surplus and its appropriation by a central authority such as a king or deity Writing to record economic activity and the myths, events, and other ideological issues that serve to justify the discrepancies between the privileged and lower classes Exact and predictive sciences, to forecast the weather for agricultural productin Monumental public architecture, which could include such structures as temples palaces, fortifications, and tombs Figural art Foreign trade Residence-based group membership in which people of all professions and classes could share a sense of community Determining Dates Two versions o Relative Seriation: Arranging items in an order, or series. Based on their style: the combination of visual, compositional, and technological features that characterize an artifact. Stratigraphy: Dating objects based on their relative depth at an excavation site. Tells: Tells are the hill-like remains of multi-period habitations o Absolute Radiocarbon dating: The process of dating an artifact based on the amount of Carbon 14 present. Which degrades at to ½ the original Carbon 14 after 5, 730 into Carbon 12. Historical records See Pages 9 and 10 for terminology and information regarding Metric Vs American/Imperial weights and measures. Chapter 1, Sep 6 th Chapter One Ancient Cities Introduction o Urbanism: Living in cities o Refer to Childe’s ten-point definition of a city (pg. 3) o When glaciers receded around 10,000 BC the climate became warmer, and moister which fostered the Neolithic Period Geography, Climate, and the Neolithic Revolution (Ancient Near East) o Contains Alluvial lowlands Uplands Mountains Deserts o Mesopotamia The land between the Tigris and Euphrates Corresponds with modern Iraq, Northeast Syria, and south-east turkey. o Southern Iraq Flat Hot and dry Location of first Sumerian Civilizations The Taurus mountains run east- west crossing southern and easteren turkey, northern Syria and northern Iraq Mountain civilizations have been autonomous and independent o Fertile Crescentt The arc between eastern and northern Iraq west across northern Syria and southwards toward southern Levant Rich in natural resources Gazelle Acorns Wild Grasses Wheat Barley Sheep Goats Cattle Pigs The ancestors of the plants and animals that would be domesticated during the Neolithic period Nomadic Tribes lived in this area seasonally o Hunting and gathering was easy o Moved with the seasons to track animals and collect ripened fruit. o Lived in natural shelters such as caves o Made tools from flint or bone Chapter 1, Sep 6 th o The European contemporaries painted scenes of the hunt or made figurines of nurturing others Characteristics of the Neolithic Period Art of Pottery Metalworking Metallurgy Recording using clay tokens Domesticated plants and animals have changed distinctly from their wild counterparts Beginning of plant cultivation o Southern Levant between Damascus and Jericho o May have been encouraged by the decreased fertility of wild animals due to the drier climate o Goats and sheep were domesticated first o Cattle and pigs were domesticated in the 7 Millennium BC o Hunting and gathering continued as a supplement Vocab o Flotation: Taking a sample of excavated earth and pouring it into water seeds and other plant matter will float Jericho (9000 BC – present) o On the Jordan River Valley in Palestine o Houses First phase (Phase A) Round Made of sun dried brick Rounded top Second phase (Phase B) Rectangular rooms arranged with a central courtyard Cigar shaped mud brick design Often painted red or pink Floors plastered with gypsum and an occasional reed mat o Fortifications Wall The wall had an internal tower with stairs leading to the top that may have been the site of cultic activities o Signs of trade Obsidian: A volcanic glass that is used as a material for sharp blades o Signs of religious practices The Jericho skulls Found beneath the floor The skulls were plastered to recreate their faces and cowrie shells were used in place of eyes A sign of ancestor worship Anthropomorphic figurines Made of lime plaster and wicker core, painted and decorated, shells were used for eyes here too Chapter 1, Sep 6 th Çayönü (8250-5000 BC) o Located near Diyarbakir in south-eastern Turkey on a tributary of the Tigris River o Phase I Subphase 1 Round Building Subphase Made eof wattle-and-daub A lattice of twigs and branches covered with mud, straw, grass, and possibly dung Floors below ground level Subphase 2 Grill plan phase Rectangular houses with foundations of parallel stone walls Floors laid ontop of this foundation were made of twigs and branches covered with lime and clay Superstructure was made of wattle-and-daub Homes had 3 parts o Living area o Enclosed courtyard o A small storage Houses in this phase resembled each other in size, plan, and orientation, arranged in a checkerboard pattern Subphase 3 House foundations were filled in leaving only drainage channels Villiage grew but houses spread appart A cult area named the plaza was established Two rows of large standing stones were set onto the clay floor Subphase 4 Drainage area was filled and homes were protected from ground water through cobble fill instead Subphase 5 Cell building subphase Houses were made larger Stone foundations into cell-like copartments Made of mud-brick The plaza is encircled by the largest homes now Subphase 6 The village became smaller The plaza was used as a refuse dump Houses consisted of only one or two buildings Monumental buildings from these phases (1-5) Large round structure Larged flagstone building with a floor of polished limestone and stones set upright on the floor Skull building o Rebuilt at least 6 times Chapter 1, Sep 6 th o Containing human skeletons or fragments o 70 Skulls were found in the first excavation o Represents 450 Individuals Terrazzo Building o A floor made of polished cobbles and pinkish lime made by burning limestone o Phase II: Pottery Neolithic (6,000 to 5,000 BCE) The buildings are changed to a clustering of irregularly shaped houses along narrow streets No communal buildings continue to be absent o During subphases 1-5 They depended on the collection of wild plants and the hunting of wild animals They began cultivating pulses, lentils, vetch, and Einkorn wheat to supplement their diet At the end of subphase 5 the domestication of sheep and goat then appeared become a dietary staple, which decreased the hunting of wild animals o There is evidence of early Metallurgy Copper and malachite were worked in subphase 2 Intensification in subphases 3 and 4 Ore was used to create pins, hooks, and drills o Craft Bead making Weaving Tools/Decoration made of obsidian and sea shells (Long distance trade) Çatalhöyük o Western Turkey o Houses with court yards made of mudbrick and wood entered through the roof Main room with an adjacent storeroom Each house had two low platforms with a raised bench at one end of the main platform Bones of the dead were buried under this platform Bones may have been exposed outside and had the flesh removed by vultures The text mentions that this is contradictory to the Roman belief that the dead menanced and pilluted the land of the living o Trade o Craft Specialization Evidence in the form of obsidian tools, lead pendants, copper slags, pottery, wooden bowls, etc. o Development of science Metallurgy as shown by the melting of copper and lead o Evidence of herding/agriculture Cereals, nuts, legumes, beef, sheep, and goats Chapter 1, Sep 6 th o Art Wall paintings/murals Typically depicting hunting scenes Figurines Depicting what was believed to be the mother goddess, sitting on a throne, with two jaguars as arm rests Plaster bull heads They were believed to be shrines to a god like bull creature that was married to the mother goddess Further evidence shows that they may in fact be homes, the bulls representing the economy of the area o Religious evidence Bodies were buried under the living areas of homes These bodies were typically wrapped in skins and buried in baskets This is evidence of the cult of the ancestors Potential shrines o Economy Agricultural society (Cereal, nuts, and legumes) Evidence of herding particularly of cattle (Hence the explanation of the bull heads as part of the economy) Evidence of trade of obsidian Metallurgy (Lead and copper) Pottery o Trade Obsidian (Export) Mediterranean Sea shells and turquoise (import) Chiefdom o A political system with a single ruler exercises authority over two or more local groups with a ranked hierarchy of subordinates State o A more formal centralized government with power invested in a combination of economic, military, legal, and ideological institutions. Handles affairs in an impersonal way, may use force or mete out punishments in order to support its decisions
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