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PSY 101

by: Andrej Sodoma
Andrej Sodoma
GPA 3.77

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About this Document

These notes cover chapter 3 which was about the brain.
Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Elizabeth Nelson
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrej Sodoma on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Elizabeth Nelson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Arizona State University.

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Date Created: 09/08/16
Lecture notes for Chapter 3: Biological aspects of psychology, structures and functions of the  brain and methods for studying the brain.  I.) Four lobes of the cerebral cortex and general brain structure. (Using the fist method)  A. Frontal Lobe (fingers)  i. Primary Motor Cortex (Knuckles)  ii. Broca’s area (above thumb) = speech, located in left hemisphere only.  B. Parietal Lobe (back of the hand) i. Primary sensory cortex = processes senses ii. Association cortex  C. Temporal Lobe (thumb)   i. Wernicke’s area = processes language (left side)  D. Occipital Lobe (wrist)  i. Primary visual cortex  E. Corpus Callosum = connects the two left and right hemispheres. i. It is cut when someone has severe life threatening epilepsy.  ii. When it is cut the left and right hemispheres cannot communicate  resulting in people who are able to write but are not able to speak.  F. Left hemisphere (right fist): controls the right side of the body, performs logic  based tasks.  G. Right hemisphere (left fist): controls the left side of the body, performs facial  recognition, music, visual imagery, and spatial abilities.  H. Hypothalamus: it is a gland near the brain stem that controls the release of  hormones specifically Oxytocin as well as regulation of the Circadian Rhythm.  i. Oxytocin: bonding hormone  ii. Circadian Rhythm: it’s a 24 hour biological clock that governs our sleep  cycle.  I. Brainstem: controls automatic behavior and basic life support tasks like heart  beat, breathing, etc. It is located below the midbrain and adjacent to the  cerebellum.  i. Hypothalamus: stress response ii. Cerebellum: coordinates and regulates muscular activity.  J. Limbic System  i. Hippocampus: coding and retrieving memory, also regulates emotion.  ii. Thalamus: relay sensory information  iii. Basil ganglia: voluntary movement  K. Subcortical structure: thalamus, basal ganglia, amygdala i. Amygdala: encodes feared experiences and emotional responses. Fight or  flight mode as well.  L. Posterior Cingulate Cortex and Anterior Cingulate Cortex: located between the  corpus callosum and the parietal lobe.  i. PCC: memory and visual processing ii. ACC: controls autonomic nervous system  II.) The Nervous System  A. Central nervous system: brain and spinal cord. B. Peripheral nervous system: neural network C.  Neurotransmitters use steroid and peptide molecules to bind with specific  receptors in dendrite and synapses of nerve cells.  D. Newborn neuron vs. mature neuron and neuron structure i. Dendrites: receives messages from synapses ii. Cell body: connects the dendrites iii. Axon: sends the signal to the synapses iv. Synapses: the junction between two nerve cells v. Myelin sheath: covers the axon allowing the signal to travel faster.  vi. Schwann cells: produces the myelin sheath.  vii. The difference between newborn neuron and a mature neuron is that the  mature neuron has a myelin sheath allowing signals to travel faster. It also  has more dendrites.  viii. Glial cells: provide nutrients to neurons.  ix. Pruning: it is the process of strengthening neural networks by making  them automatic and intentional. It is done through genes and environment. ­ Newborn brains grow from the brain stem out then back to front.  ­ At age two synaptic growth stops.  ­ Pruning occurs until the age of 25.  E. Information transition: i. Chemical signaling: neurotransmitters  ii. First there is a calcium influx to initiate the release of neurotransmitters.  Second, the synaptic vesicles move towards the synapse. Third, once the  synaptic vesicles are at the synapse they open. Fourth, the neurotransmitter moves to the receptors, which are part of the dendrite. Fifth, the synaptic  vesicle is recycled. Sixth, the synaptic vesicle is then refilled with  neurotransmitters.  F. Action Potential: electrical signaling i. First, an action potential shoots down the axon, which is an influx of sodium  ions causing depolarization. The synaptic vesicles then fill with neurotransmitters  and move down to the synapse in order to send the neurotransmitters to the  receptors on the other neuron’s dendrites. Second, the sodium gates close. Third,  this results in the potassium gates opening, which releases potassium ions. Fourth, repolarization occurs with an active sodium potassium pump. Fifth,  hyperpolarization occurs bringing it back to the sixth and final step of rest  polarization.      III.) Endocrine system  A. Hormones mentioned in class i. Endorphins: pain control ii. Melatonin: controls sleep and wake cycles iii. Epinephrine: fight or flight response iv. Norepinephrine: mood, sleep, learning v. Thyroid hormones: regulate metabolism  B. Parts to the endocrine system i. Pituitary gland: regulates growth, thyroid, ovaries, testes, pancreas,  adrenal cortex, water and salt metabolism. ii. Thyroid: controls metabolic rate. iii. Adrenal gland: regulates carbohydrates and salt metabolism.  iv. Pancreas: regulates sugar metabolism.  v. Pineal gland: regulates circadian rhythm.  IV.) Brain Chemistry  A. The example brought up in class in order to demonstrate what occurs when ones  brain chemistry malfunctions was the story of The Brain on Fire i. A woman started to experience anti­NMDA receptor autoimmune  encephalitis. Which caused her left side of the brain to be fine but the right side of the brain was compromised due to her immune system attacking it. This was seen when a doctor asked her to draw an image of a clock but  she was only able to draw the right half of it. This lead to her NMDA  receptor to stop functioning resulting in impaired memory, learning,  psychosis, and brain damage.  B. Depression  i. There are 30 neurotransmitters. Three of them are linked to depression  these are serotonin (SSRI), norepinephrine, and dopamine.  ii. The main treatment is medication.  ­Fact: one in 20 Americans above the age of twelve are taking anti­ depressants.  ­ Other alternatives are nutrition, lifestyle, holistic, therapy. iii. Depression is caused by brain chemistry, thoughts, emotions, and behavior.  iv. Cortisol: the hormone linked to depression is the stress hormone.  v. HPA axis: the bodies stress response system. It is measured with cortisol. vi. How cortisol is released: first the central nervous system is triggered. Second,  the hypothalamus is triggered producing CRH. Third, this triggers the anti­ pituitary gland. Fourth, this triggers the adrenal cortex to produce  cortisol, which  is then transported to the target tissues.   vii. Three types of stress: 1. positive stress: it usually occurs when is being challenged. It causes a  normal release of cortisol.  2. tolerable stress: It is a result of a lasting stress response due to losing a  loved one or some traumatic event. It is constantly triggered until you  get help from a caregiver.   3. toxic stress: occurs when there is a constant severe stress that is not  remedied, like war, child abuse. When it occurs in young children their HPA system is affected and their immune system is repressed.  viii. How to develop a good stress response: For someone to have this you have to have a person you can count on, caregiver. C. Hormones (think glands) vs. Neurotransmitters (think the brain) i. Signal: neurotransmitters are electrical(active potential) and hormones are  chemical(chemical signaling) .  ­ important ii. Pathway: Neurotransmitters are transported through neurons because they  are electrical and hormones are transported through the blood because they are chemical. iii. Speed: Neurotransmitters are faster because they are electrical where as  hormones are slower because they are transferred through the blood.  iv. Effect: Neurotransmitter have a short effect because they are used and  then repolarized in four seconds. Hormones can have a long or short effect because they have to be absorbed by the cell, which can vary depending  on the chemical makeup of the hormone.  v. Response: Neurotransmitter responses are voluntary as well as  involuntary. Hormones are involuntary.  vi. Target: Neurotransmitters have a localized target whereas hormones have  a distant target because different glands trigger other glands in order to  make specific hormones.  vii. The endocrine system regulates hormones  ­ Parts of the system are pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland,  adrenal gland, pancreas, and hypothalamus. 


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