Medieval Crusade and Jihad
Medieval Crusade and Jihad 4330
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Gipson on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 4330 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Kathryn Beebe in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Medieval Crusades and the Jihad in History at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
HIST 4330: Medieval Crusade and Jihad Europe and Western Christianity to the year 1095 “There is not a more dangerous tendency in human history than that of representing that past as if it were a rational whole and dictated by clearly defined interests.” – J. Huizinga, The Waning of the Middle Ages Key Points: o Centrality of Christianity in formation of Latin West and marginal positionthf Jewish communities o Important of 11 century papal reform movement in shaping popular piety o Significance of papal-imperial struggle Rome’s 3 Cultural Heirs: o Latin (Western)- language of the Church o Byzantine o Islamic- growing out of the Old Roman Empire The Ecclesiastical Hierarchy: o Pope Begins to claim more territory/power for himself. Secular rulers opposed him. Pope transitions from Vigor of St. Peter to the Vigor of Christ. Territory of the 5 patriarchs in 381 A.D. Rome Constantinople Antioch Jerusalem Alexandria o Cardinals Bishops or Archbishops o Priests/Monks o Laity Centrality of Christianity: o Monks and missionaries begin to “settle.” o The Monastic Contribution Turn to God for further help. Help save the whole population Knights were in conflicted because their job is to kill but it’s a sin, stated clearly in the Bible. How can you be a good soldier and a good Christian? Huge influence in the architecture o Major Goals of Latin Rulers: Convert pagans to Christianity Create a “properly ordered” Christendom Jewish Movement HIST 4330: Medieval Crusade and Jihad o How would you describe the position of Jewish people in Europe before 1050? (Post Diaspora) Nomadic, to a point. Allowed to settle but only with conditions. Lesser status/tolerance under Christianity than under Islam. Proper Order o Pope Gregory VII Gregorian Reform Eliminate lay control of church. Purify clergy o No more marriage or sexual activity. o No more purchasing of offices, or simony. Pay to be in a political office position. o No more subservience to powerful lay lords. Gregorian Reform enhances authority and prestige of both papacy and ecclesiastical structure and challenges priests to identify where their loyalities lie. o Penintential of Theodore Pay for sins “…with wonderful consideration set forth the sentences of sinners or the number of years one ought to do penance for every sin.” – Theodore, Liber Pontificalis o For example, if you murder your neighbor, you’re sent on a pilgrimage to holy sites like Jerusalem as payage to what you’ve done. o Ambiguous because people weren’t actually sure it would work. o Henry IV isn’t happy with this, so the Investiture Conflict arises. Who has the right to ‘invest’ clergy with symbols of authority? Who is ultimately the superior power? Pope Urban II (1088-1099) o Reformer pope in the Gregorian tradition. o Concerned about: Spiritual laity Imperial and secular power Schism between Latin’s and Greeks Proper order in Christendom o Calls the First Crusade in 1095 What central themes underlie the idea of crusade? HIST 4330: Medieval Crusade and Jihad Jerusalem is the center of the world, “belly button.” Violence within Church, so the crusade takes the negative and transitions it to positive. Unifying and sanctifying religion with the violence. For Claster, she believes pilgrimage, penance, Holy War and Jihad (struggle or strive: Greater Jihad which is living virtuously according to Islam and the Lesser Jihad which is preserving Islam from its enemies) were the central themes behind a crusade.
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