Medieval Crusade, Week 2
Medieval Crusade, Week 2 4330
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Gipson on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 4330 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Kathryn Beebe in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Medieval Crusades and the Jihad in History at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Islam and the Early Muslim World As the Roman Empire split into 2, in the East, an interesting group of people took to Islam strongly. o Very different political entities across the Arabian Peninsula. How might geography have shaped early Arabian societies? Few major water sources so those areas are highly contested because whoever is in control can tax, trade routes around the lands above, port cities, etc. Traditional hospitality among the Arabian peoples but also raiding. Hypocritical? YES. How would one describe Mecca? Off the path of on the trade route through Damaskus, Petra down to Marib and Qana. Significance of Ka’ab in Mecca? o Holiest site of Islam today but also incorporates early Islamic holy spots. Pre-Islamic World o Byzantine Empire- coherent identity among the powerful conquering. Greek speaking, Christian. o Sasanian (Persian) Empire- controlling the old Babylonian area: Tigris and Euphrates. o Both Empires clash. The Prophet Muhammed (Revelations being c. 610) o He believes that his people weren’t living up to religious standards and respect. He as revelation from Gabriel where Gabriel explained to Muhammad that he will continue God’s work on land. Revelations provide basis for forging one “Umma” or community. One people, moral purpose now. o What did Muhammed believe about the relationship of Islam, Judaism and Christianity? Believed that Christians and Jews deviated from the truth faith but still respected the people. Almost like a ‘second class.’ o The hijra (622 CE) Muhammed took his believers to Medina. The year during which the Hijra occurred was designated as the first year of the Islamic calendar by Umar in 638 or 17 AH (anno hegirae= “in the year of the hijra”) o Ethical force of revelations provide basis for a unified Arab society. Political force of cohesion and a religion as a connection. 5 Pillar of Islam: Acknowledge only one God, Allah, and Muhammed as his messenger. Pray 5 times a day toward Mecca. Observe the holy month of Ramadan through fasting. Give alms (money to poor). Pilgrimage to mecca once in a lifetime. **Any similarities in these to other religions? o Christianity with one God and giving to the poor. o Catholicism with fasting and again, providing relief to the poor. What was the appeal of Islam to Arabs of the 7 century? o Political and religious entity o Equality among all peoples. Any Muslim can make a binding contract. o Provides structure and order among the peoples. Death of Muhammed o Who should succeed Muhammed after his death? Who is the rightful caliph? Abu Bakr (Father-in-Law) succeeded him after his death in 632. Umar (632-644) *** Sunnies believe that they were rightful heirs, bloodline. Uthman- member of the Quraysh trive descended from Umayyah. (644-656) Ali (husband to Muhammed’s daughter, Fadtima) (656-651) *** Shi’ites believe that they were heirs because of the holiness. Discussion: Al-Baladhuri on Early Muslim Conquests o Motivations for the Conquests? Just wanted to conquer and expand Money driven: taxes Political move backed by religion to get gains, AYE. LOL. I’m dumb. Damascus first, Jerusalem second.