Chapter 17 Notes
Chapter 17 Notes History 1112
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Raven Hamilton on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1112 at Clayton State University taught by Shane Bell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Survey of Modern World History in History at Clayton State University.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Chapter 17 Notes In class Notes/ Reading Notes: China (Ming and Qing Dynasty) Portugal was the first European nation to have direct contact (1514) with China since Marco Polo. China built ships far larger than any western creation and went on explorations beyond those of western nations. After a couple of decades, China ceased this imperial expansion on the premise that outside goods and influence weren’t needed. The empire could easily have been self contained. They burned all their ships. Chinese did not think highly of European visitors, in fact, they thought of them as barbarians. The Portuguese established the settlement of Macao in the 16 th century. Jesuit missionaries came to China to spread Catholic religion. They realized that Confucianism ran deep in Chinese society. In studying the religion, the concluded that they must draw parallels between Christianity and Confucianism to draw converts. th Ming Dynasty Their decline in the 16 century was due in part to a series of weak rulers. There were internal problems with the economy which suffered from inflation from silver and from the trade disruption by the English and Dutch. During this period was also a “little ice age” which cooled temperatures and affected crop yields negatively. Peasant revolt led by Li Zicheng in Beijing in April of 1644. The following month the Manchus conquered Beijing and created the Qing (Pure) Dynasty. Qing Dynasty The Manchus policies provoked resistance and they forced the Chinese to adopt Manchu dress and hairstyle. However, being the ethnic minority, they realized that they needed to adapt to Chinese practices. There wasth population explosion from 7080 million in 1390 to 300 million at the end of the 18 century. This was due to political stability, the introduction of new crops, and the arrival of new species of faster growing rice from southeast Asia. Industrialization was also introduced to China during this period with a growth of manufacturing and commerce, however the social elites in China preferred agriculture over industrialization. Kangxi (16611722) Arguably the greatest ruler in Chinese history. He pacified the nomadic peoples on the northern and the western frontiers. Became his rule as a child and reigned for six decades. He was a patron of the arts and beloved by man of his subjects. Created a Sacred Edict that delineated proper Confucian behavior. During his reign he was tolerant of foreigners and there was competition among Dominicans and Franciscans. Qianlong (17361795) during his reign the first signs of internal decay emerge and corruption in the central government led to unrest in rural areas. Qing Politics They retained most of the Ming political system and had a devotion to Confucian principles. Because of their status as minorities within China, the Manchus given noble privileges to ethnic Manchus. Established a rule that the Chinese could not settle in Manchuria. Dyarchy mechanism for sharing the administrative positions by Manchus and Chinese. Tributaries states states that are not ruled directly but owe something to a ruling empire. Expected to pay for Chinese protection. Western influence in China Russian traders were garnering for trading privileges in Manchuria and refused tributary status. They wanted to trade with China as an equal partner. England replaces Portugal as being the main trading nation with China. There first trading post was established in 1699 in Canton. The Qing licensed Chinese traders to trade with England. The English imported large amounts of silver to pay for Chinese goods. Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) treaty between Russians and Chinese Daily Life in Qing China emphasis on the extended family. The family was the central institution of Chinese society. Large families were needed to maintain agriculture. The man was the head of the household and had control over every aspect of those under him. Females were considered inferior to males. Husbands could divorce his wife, take a second wife, or take a concubine if the first wife did not produce a male heir. Filial piety ability to produce a legitimate male heir. Art of Ming and Qing Imperial City in Beijing: most outstanding example of early modern Chinese architecture. Blueandwhite porcelain of the Ming: probably most famous of all the era’s achievements. The Three Great Unifiers Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Tokugawa Ieyasu. Three rulers that are credited for unifying Japan Oda Nounaga (15681582) seized Kyoto, spent last years trying to consolidate his rule. Toyotomi Hideyoshi (15821598) went from a farmer’s son to leading Osaka and most other areas of Japan. He created a national currency and had control of islands Shikoku and Kyushu. Expelled Christian missionaries in 1587 for interference in local Japanese politics. Tokugawa Ieyasu (15981616) Began most powerful and lengthiest of all Japanese shogunates Westerners in Japan Portuguese arrive in 1543 and begin trading. At first the Japanese welcome the westerners but begin to resent them as they imposed Christianity through missionaries. These missionaries are evicted in 1612, but by this time there is a decent population of Japanese Christians who revolt in 1637. After this eviction, only the Dutch remain and are allowed to trade with Japan once a year. Bakufu a coalition of daimyo. Diamyo members of prominent families. By transforming the fief into a form of wages, the daimyo were able to ameliorate the economic pressure they experienced. Daimyo duties for the shogun created economic pressures on the nobility. Han separate territories of Tokugawa Shogunate. Samurai Japanese warriors, changed from the status of warrior into managers. The Tokugawa “Great Peace” the daimyo were required to maintain two residences, one in their own domain and one in Edo (Tokyo). Land problems led to greater numbers of peasant disturbances. There was low population growth and an emergence of the nuclear family. Hereditary status and official discrimination against the outcast class. Eta outcast class in Japan.