J201 Media and Society
J201 Media and Society
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Chapter 2 Books and the Power of Print 7 W pLJu IHdr EkrPFrrRrJRVJJT f Jim Terms Papyrus reeds that were found from plants along the Nile river that Egyptians rolled into scrolls they could write on Parchment treated animal skin that replaced papyrus in Europe Codex sheets of parohment sewn together along one edge then bound with thin pieces of wood and covered with leather Ilanusoript oulture stage in which new rules about written language and book design were oodifiedbooks were elaborately lettered decorated and bound by hand Inventors also began experimenting with printing as an alternative to hand lettering and a way to speed up the production and binding of manuscript oopies llluminated manuscripts books that featured decorative colorful illustrations on each page and that were often made for churches or wealthy clients Block printing printers applied sheets of paper to large blocks of inked wood in which they had handcarved a page s worth of characters and illustrations in relief Chinese innovation Printing press invented by Johannes Gutenber in Germany Produced the first socalled modern ooks including the Gutenberg Bible Vellum calfskinbased parchment The Gutenberg Bible was printed on Paperback books had paper covers introduced from Europe and allowed books to be even more accessible to the masses Dime novels novels sold for five or ten cents Pulp fiction reference to the cheap machinemade pulp paper they were printed on lncluded popular paperbacks and dime novels Linotype machine enabled printers to save time by setting type mechanically using a typewriterstyle keyboard Offset lithography publishers could print books from photographic plates rather than from metal casts This greatly reduced the cost of color ink and illustrations and accelerated the production process enabling publishers to satisfy Americans steadily increasing demand for books Synergy the promotion and sale of different versions of a media product across the various subsidiaries of a conglomerate Acquisition editors seek out authors and offer them contracts to publish specific titles Subsidiary rights for authors selling the rights to a book for other media such as a massmarket c E as c w 0 px z if Developmental editor helps the author draft and revise the manuscript by providing his or her own feedback and soliciting advice from reviewers Copy editors fix any spelling punctuation grammar or style problems in the manuscript Design managers determine the look and feel of a book making decisions about type styles paper cover design and layout of page spreads Trade books include hardbound and paperback books aimed at general readers and sold at commercial retail outlets Professional books target various occupational groups not the general consumer market Textbooks served a nation intent on improving literacy rates and public education and are divided into elementary through high school texts college texts and vocational texts cl aret Paperbacks sold on racksi E 39 quot 0 5 E 7 lil i O 2 wtr ii l Instant book marketing strategy that involves publishing a topical book quickly after a major event occurs Reference books include dictionaries encyclopedias atlases almanacs and volumes related to particular professions or trades such as legal casebooks and medical manuals University Press publishes scholarly works for small groups of readers interested in specialized areas such as literacy theory and criticism art movements and contemporary philosophy EBooks accessed on a Web site and read on the computer Brickandmortar stores include traditional bookstores department stores drugstores usedbook stores and toy stores Online stores Amazon and Barnes and Noble Book clubs entice new members with offers such as five books for a dollar then require regular purchases from their list of recommended titles Mail order immediately notifies readers about new book titles Appeals to customers who want to avoid the hassle of shopping in stores or who want their purchases to remain private 0 Book challenge now citizens force the removal of books by having enough people file a formal complaint about subject matter they find objectionable in particular books Early History of Books 0 First mass media 0 Early forms clay tabletshieroglyphics MesopotamiaEgypt cottonlinen Chinese 0 Egyptians created papyrus scrolls made from plant reeds and gradually people began writing on parchment treated animal skin because of its durability and cheaper cost in Europe Romans created the first protomodern book with the codex sheets of parchment sewn together along the edge and then bound and covered 0 0 By the 1830s paperback books were introduced in the United States and by 1870s dime novels pulp fiction were made easily accessible to the masses 0 In the 1880s the introduction of offset lithography from linotype machines enabled printers to save time by setting type mechanically using a typewriter style keyboard in the 1900s allowed publishers to print books from photographic plates rather than from metal casts which cut costs reduced cost of colored ink and illustrations and saved more time Evolution of Modern Publishing 0 Initially publishing houses were small and focused on offering the works of prestigious authors but over time they were picked up by major corporations with ties to international media conglomerates that took advantage of synergy The consolidation of the book industry has raised concerns among observers who mourn the loss of the older houses distinctive styles and associations with literary figures Large corporations can buy needed resources at a discount and charge less for their product Few independent publishers have been able to compete against them Publishing House Structure 0 lost pay independent printers to produce their books 0 Acquisition editors seek out authors and offer them contracts to publish specific titles 0 Subsidiary rights selling the rights to a book for use in other media 0 Developmental editor helps author draft and revise manuscript by providing hisher own feedback and soliciting advice from reviewers 0 Copy editors fix any spelling punctuation grammar style problems 0 Design managers determine the look and feel of the book making decisigns about type styles paper cover design and layout of page sprea s Book Types Trade Books hardbound books and paperbacks aimed at general readers and sold at commercial retail outlets Professional Books targeted at various occupational groups not the general consumer market Textbooks Educational books divided into elementary through high school college and vocational categories Mass Market Paperbacks sold on racks in drugstores supermarkets and airports Instant books an innovation in mass market paperback publishing that involves putting out a topical book quickly after a major event occurs Reference books including dictionaries encyclopedias atlases almanacs and volumes related to particular professions or trades University press books nonprofit scholarly works for small groups of readers Audio Books EBooks digital books read on a computer or electronic reading device Case Study Dime Novels First profitable mass literature in the US Written in assembly line fashion Accessible Women s dime novels women s books clearly depicted change in the women s conditions women moving into lowpaying often dangerous factory jobs concern over what happens to their virtue Typical themes weddings gone wrong forced into loveless and illegal marriage with upperclass villain saved by upper class hero who admired virtue Popular Fanny Fern sold 100000 copies of Fern Leaves Compare to Herman Melville or Nathaniel Hawthorne a few thousand copies a year Women authors 75 of all books published in 1872 were written by women Working women dime novels cheap enough for working class Immigrants felt proud they could read an English book seductive and dangerous reaction bylmiddle class nation in moral decline concern over copycat behavior from crime stories concerns about ac i Economics of the Book lndustry 0 The book business makes money by selling books through brickandmortar stores traditional bookstores department stores drugstores usedbook stores toy stores online stores book clubs and mail order and also by selling TV and movie rights 0 The book business spends money on essential activities such as book production expendituressalaries for employees paper printing binding advance money distribution shipping and marketing advertising book signing tours freeexamination copies space in newspapers magazines buses billboards Books in our Democratic Society 0 Disseminated ideas that have inspired people to drive change 0 Face many challenges Censorship prevents people from learning about alternative ideas or ways of living Censorship is illegal in the US but citizens can force the removal of books from public or school librariesa book chalenge about subject matter they find objectionable 0 Physical deterioration of books pose problems quot F quot 39 ookstores are declining in popularity 3 Qu IZ 0 1 Who invented the printing press that produced the first socalled modern books Answer 1 Made by Gutenberg between 1453 and 1456 and allowed the mass production of books such as the bible Gutenberg s printing press made the first Gutenberg Bible that was printed on a fine calfskin based parchment called vellum 2 What was the oldest block printed book 2 What was the oldest block printed book Answer 2 The Diamond Sutra was the oldest blockprinted book 3 What were some impacts of the printing press Answer 3 The impacts of the printing press allowed books to move to the mass medium stage complete with the rise of the publishing industry two centuries later It helped the democratization of knowledge and information loosening grip of the Catholic Church and trade led to further diffusion of information gives rise to the idea of content as an industry a commodity Chapter 1 Mass Communication A Critical Approach O 99 Terms Mass media are the industries that create and distribute songs novels newspapers movies Internet services TV shows magazines and other products to a large number of people Mass communication the creation and use of symbols for example languages Morse code motion pictures and binary computer codes that convey information and meaning to large and diverse audiences through all manner of channels O 90 90 0 Digital communication images texts and sounds are converted encoded into electronic signals represented as combinations of ones and zeros that are then reassembled decoded as a precise reproduction of say a TV picture a magazine article a song or a Voice on the telephone Media convergence has two meanings one the technological merging of content in different mass media For example magazine articles and radio programs are also accessible on the Internet two describes a particular business model by which a company consolidates Various media holdingssuch as cable connections phone services television transmissions and Internet accessunder one corporate umbrella The goal of such consolidation is not necessarily to offer consumers more choices in their media but to better manage resources lower costs and maximize pro ts For example a company that owns TV stations radio outlets and newspapers in multiple marketsas well as in the same citiescan deploy one reporter or producer to C1 E11t three or four Versions of the same story for Various media out ets Media literacy understanding how the media work and what in uence they have on our lives Senders authors producers organizations Messages programs texts images sounds ads Mass Media Channel newspapers books magazines radio television the Internet Receivers readers viewers consumers Gatekeepers news editors executive producers of TV shows and movies Feedback citizens and consumers can return messages to senders or gatekeepers through letters phone calls email Web postings or talk shows O 99 Survey research many media researchers conduct regular national and regional surveys to take snapshots of the public s opinions on all manner of issues and use information as a basis for action For example public opinion researchers test Words ideas and images on small focus groups to see how different ways of framing a topic such as global Warming or climate change affect Voters decisions High culture good taste higher education and fine art supported by wealthy patrons and corporate donors Low popular culture questionable tastes of the masses who lapped up the commercial junk circulated by the mass media such as reality TV shows celebrity gossip Web sites and action films O9 O9 9 O9 0 O9 9 O9 0 Modern Era from the Industrial Revolution to the midtwentieth century four values came into focus across the American cultural landscape working efficiently celebrating the individual believing in a rational order rejecting tradition and embracing progress Working efficiently ef cient manufacturing centers and the production of inexpensive products allowed advertisers to spread the word about new gadgets that could save Americans time and labor Celebrating the individual media described and interpreted new scientific discoveries enabling ordinary readers to gain access to new ideas beyond what their religious leaders and local politicians communicated to them With access to novel ideas people began celebrating the individual s power to pick and choose from ideas instead of merely following what leaders told them Believing in a rational order valuing logic and reason and viewed the world as a rationalplace printed mass media served to educate the citizenry helping to build and maintain an organized society Rejecting tradition and embracing progress Progressive Era political and social reform that lasted from the 1890s to the 1920s inspired many Americans to break tradition and embrace change Journalists began focusing their reporting on immediate events They ignored the foundational developments that led up to those eveintlsl further reinforcing the notion that the past matters far less than the present an ture 0 O6 Postmodern period from roughly the midtwentieth century to today cultural values changed shape once more Celebrating populism reviving older cultural styles embracing technology embracing the supernatural Celebrating populism as a political idea populism tries to appeal to ordinary people by setting up a con ict between the people and the elite For example populist politicians often run ads criticizing big corporations and political favoritism Reviving older cultural styles mass media now borrow and then transform cultural styles from the modern era Embracing technology T mnsformers Embracing the supernatural some people have begun challenging the argument that scienti c reasoning is the only way to interpret the world and have gravitated toward tlraditional religion or the supernatural Lost and T he vampire zczrzes O 99 Content analysis researchers code and count the content of various types of media For instance they total up the number of news stories that contain speci c types of information regarding the topic in question such as how to prevent cancer count song lyrics containing references to a topic sex or total up the number of occurrences of certain behaviors violent acts shown in a set of movies Experiments using randomly assigned subjects to test people s selfreported recall of or reactions to media content Critical process describing analyzing interpreting evaluating and engaging with mass media O9 O9 0 O9 0 09 Evolution of Mass Communication Mass media versus mass communication Oral and written eras information and knowledge circulated through spoken traditions poets teachers storytellers and then through manuscripts religious works prayers literature personal chronicles commissioned by elites philosophers monks Print era wide dissemination of manuscripts became possible thanks to the emergence of movable type and the printing press Mass production of books spurred four significant changes resistance to authority the rise of new socioeconomic classes the spread of literacy and a focus on individualism Electronic and digital eras the telegraph radio and television made messages instantaneous and reshaped American life Digital communication has changed the rules about who controls the dispersal of information Also ushered media convergence Evolution of a new Mass Medium no Development stage solving a problem no Entrepreneurial stage determine practical and marketable use for the new device to Mass medium stage how to market device as consumer product 0 O9 O9 09 How media literacy represents ways of understanding media Linear model attempts to explain how a mass medium actually communicates messages and how we understand them senders authors producers organizations transmit messages programs texts images sounds ads through mass media channel newspapers books magazines radio television internet to large groups of receivers readers viewers consumers In the process gatekeepers news editors executive producers of TV shows and movies lter those messages by making decisions about which messages get produced for which audiences Problem is it doesn t always capture certain complexities of the mass communication process media messages do not always get to their intended receivers and receivers don t always interpret these messages the way media producers want How media literacy represents ways of O 99 0 understanding media The cultural model views media content as part of culture Recognizes that different people assign different meanings to media content Adherents believe that even as we shape media they shape us The social scientific model an informed approach that tests hypotheses with measurable data roots in the natural sciences pursuit of objective research Uses controlled laboratory experiments Survey research Cultural Model Culture as a skyscraper High culture low or popular culture Culture as a map culture is an ongoing process that accommodates diverse tastes and that various media can satisfy human desires for both familiarity and newness Cultural researchers trace changes in values that accompany changes in media The modern era saw the rise of values such as efficient work individualism belief in a rational order and rejection of tradition and embracing of progress The postmodern period witnessed new values including populism revival of older styles new technology and an interest in the supernatural Advantages recognizing the complexity of media culture and providing ethnographic political and economic traditions Disadvantages conclusions laid out in a particular study may be author s interpretation O The Social Scienti c Model Databased ndings such as percentages Social scientists use content analysis to gather data and conduct experiments as well as survey people Advantages Seeks to develop and test theories about how the media affect individuals and society in measurable Ways Produces conclusions based on hard numbers and suggest clear chain of cause and effect Disadvantages Multiple choice surveys may not cover all options participants can give definitions of what is being measured can confuse things may be limited to questions funded sources want them to study How to Critique Media 0 no We should triangulate and use multiple approaches 0 We can examine the ndings of both cultural and social scientific research on media and follow a critical process consisting of describing analyzing interpreting evaluating and engaging with mass media Critical Process 392 Critical stand developing knowledgeable interpretations and Judgments tolerant of d1verse forms of expression 1 Description breaking down break down a story into character types and plot structure music dialogue camerawork Example describe how the conventions of the documentary are used in s1tcoms l1ke Modem Family 2 Analysis patterns focus on and discuss the significant patterns that emerge during the Description stage and make connections Example How does the satirical approach of The Colbert Report compare to that of the Daily Show with Jon Stewart 3 Interpretation cause reason What does it mean Example What does the presence of criminal protagonists mean for shows like Dexter or Bredeing Bad 7 4 Evaluation bigger picture critical judgment Example The movie adaptation of T he Girl with the Dragon Tattoo depicts scenes of rape and torture Should the movie be condemned for providing violence against Women 5 Engagement make voice heard Example write letters to media editors about blind spots in news coverage T he benefits of a critical perspective is one can participate in the debate about media s impacts on our democracy and culture Quiz 1 Distinguish between mass media and mass communication Answer 1 Mass media are the industries that create and distribute songs novels newspapers movies Internet services TV shows magazines and other products to a large number of people Mass communication the creation and use of symbols for example languages Morse code motion pictures and binary computer codes that convey information and meaning to large and diverse audiences through all manner of channels to 2 What are four Values that came into focus across the American cultural landscape during the Modern era What about the postmodern period Answer 2 Modern Era working efficiently celebrating the individual believing in a rational order rejecting tradition and embracing progress happened as well in Progressive era Postmodern Period celebrating populism reviving older cultural styles embracing technology embracing the supernatural 3 What were four signi cant changes the mass production of books spurred Answer 3 resistance to authority the rise of new socioeconomic classes the spread of literacy and a focus on individualism 4 Describe the Linear Model and how it attempts to explain how mass media communicates messages What are some of its downfalls Answer 0 no 4 Linear model attempts to explain how a mass medium actually communicates messages and how we understand them Senders transmit messages through mass media channel to large groups of receivers In the process gatekeepers filter those messages by making decisions about which messages get produced for which audiences The problem is it doesn t always capture certain complexities of the mass communication process media messages do not always get to their intended receivers and receivers don t always interpret these messages the way media producers want 5 What is the cultural and social scienti c model Answer 5 The cultural model views media content as part of culture Recognizes that different people assign different meanings to media content Adherents believe that even as we shape media they shape us Views culture as a skyscraper high culture low or popular culture and culture as a map culture is an ongoing process that accommodates diverse tastes and that various media can satisfy human desires for both familiarity and newness some advantages are it recognizes the complexity of media culture and provides ethnographic political and economic traditions Some disadvantages are the conclusions laid out in a particular study may be author s interpretation The social scientific model an informed approach that tests hypotheses with measurable data roots in the natural sciences pursuit of objective research Uses controlled laboratory experiments and survey research Some advantages are it seeks to develop and test theories about how the media affect individuals and society in measurable ways Produces conclusions based on hard numbers and suggest clear chain of cause and effect Some disadvantages are multiple choice surveys may not cover all options participants can give definitions of what is being measured can confuse things may be limited to questions funded sources want them to study 6 What are the steps in critical pfocess Answer 6 Critical process describing analyzing interpreting evaluating and engaging with mass media 7 What are the stages a medium goes through before becoming a mass medium Answer 7 Development stage solving a problem Entrepreneurial stage determine practical and marketable use for the new device Mass medium stage how to market device as consumer product CHAPTER 3 Newspapers TERMS 0 News process by which people gather information and create narrative reports to help one another make sense of events happening around them 0 Partisan press publication by American colonists that began producing their first newspapers in the late 17 th century that critiqued government and disseminated the views of the different political parties that had begun to emerge and sponsor newspapers Also served a commercial role by serving business leaders and offered the latest updates on markets and reports on ship cargoes arriving from Europe 0 Penny papers papers sold for a penny o Humaninterest stories news accounts that focused on the daily trials and triumphs of the human condition often featuring ordinary individuals who had faced extraordinary challenges 0 Wire services began as commercial and cooperative organizations that relayed news stories an information around the country and the world using telegraph lines and later radio waves and digital transmissions 0 Yellow Journalism emphasized exciting humaninterest stories crime news large headlines and easiertodigest copy Regarded as the direct forerunner of today s tabloid papers reality TV and newsmagazine shows 0 Objective journalism distinguishes factual reports from opinion columns modern reporters strive to maintain a neutral attitude toward the issue or event they cover 0 InvertedPyramid style stories that begin with the most dramatic or newsworthy information and answer the questions of who what where and when at the top and tihen lnarrow down to the account of its less significant etai s o Interpretive journalism aims to explain the ramifications of key issues or events and place them in a broader historical or social context 0 Literary journalism adapted fictional techniques such a detailed setting descriptions and extensive character dialogue to nonfiction material and indepth reporting ConsensusOriented journalism often published once a week small local papers provide community calendars and meeting notices and carry articles on local schools social events town government property crimes and zoning issues their publications primarily seek to foster a sense of community though they may also explore discord and problems plaguing the localities in which they re based Con ictoriented journalism in which frontpage articles focus on events or issues such as government corruption or spikes in crime rates deviating from social norms Journalists for these publications see their role as going beyond neutral factgathering to offer competing perspectives and con icting sources on such issues as education government poverty crime politics and the economy Newshole the space not taken up by ads and devoted to frontpage news reports Feature syndicates such as United Features and Tribune Media Services provide work from the nation s best political writers editorial cartoonists comicstrip artists and selfhelp columnists Joint Operating Agreement J OA under a J OA two competing papers keep separate news divisions while merging business and production operations for a specific number of years Newspaper Chains companies that own several papers throughout the country Paywall Online papers have paywalls where only subscribers can view content 0 Citizen journalism people who are not professional journalistssuch as activists concerned about a specific issueuse the internet and blog sites to disseminate information and opinions about their favorite issues DEVELOPMENTS IN NEwsPAPEE s HISTORY O O Earliest news was oral written news was developed by Julius Caesar and posted in Rome First newspaper PUBLICK OCCURRENCES in Boston by Benjamin Harris banned after first paper for negative view on British rule The printing press allowed news to be accelerated and led to the creation of the first colonial newspapers in the late 17 th century that evolved into our editorial pages and business sections Readership was largely confined to educated or wealthy men who controlled local politics and commerce Money for the first newspapers came in from subscriptions and political parties Paper and production advances like steampowered presses that replaced mechanical were able to crank out copies during the Industrial Revolution This brought about the creation of penny papers which enabled papers to become a mass medium and allowed the rise of the middle class and increased literacy First penny papers included New York Sun which favored human interest stories Previously newspapers had been funded primarily by the political parties that sponsored them their content emphasized overt polit views Editors began putting daily reporting on front page and political viewpoints on editorial page Journalists became a profession 0 Natural Progression of historystages of newspapers according to Lippmann 1 Press as monopoly government 2 political parties 3 more people based 4 professional erajournalism as a profession 0 Many papers began accepting ads which expanded the industry and led six New York newspapers in 1848 to form the Associated Press the first news wire service Made news gathering more manageable o Other types Frontier press moving west abolitionist press antislavery The Liberator Yellow journalism Suffragist press advocating for women s rights 0 Late 1800s yellow journalism that had two major characteristics 1 overly dramaticstories about crimes celebrities disasters scandals intrigue 2 news reports exposing corruption particularly in business and governmentthe basis of investigative journalism EVOLUTION OF MODERN ERA OF PRINT JOURNALISM 0 Late 1800s readership expanded nationwide and many papers such as the New York Tunes began presenting Objective journalism via the invertedpyramid style 1900s interpretive journalism aims to explain the ramifications of key issues or events and place them in a broader historicalsocial context Walter Lippmann suggested one make a current record make a running analysis of it and suggest plans 1960 Americans questioned traditional authority and key institutions causing an exploration into new types of journalism such as literary journalism 1980s emphasis on color printing and brevity of content USA today TV inspired color present rather than past tense brief news items with shortened attention spans online journalism redefined news process by printed papers would cover stories online not wanting to be left behind and a small story that appears on the internet cascades through cable news and newspapers making the stories seem bigger than they actually are First online Newspaper 1980 in Ohio called Columbus Dispatch available through CompuServe dialup service 300 words per D minute 5 per hour billed in oneminute increments to become a subscriber a resident would have to have a home computer WHAT IS NEws 0 Six Characteristics 1 2 3 Timeliness Prominence Proximity Conflict Impact HumanInterest WHAT IS INFOTAINMENT 0 Combination of information and entertainment flashy way to get people to look at stories Example Flight 370 HARD VERSUS SOFT NEWS 0 Hard breaking news 0 Soft filler more interesting than need to know WHo IS A JOURNALIST o No standard answer 0 Possible tests 1 2 Is work intended for general public Is work creative and analytical rather than to simply relay information Are they protected by the shield law Is their work based on facts rather than fabrications Does their work have multiple points of View Do they guard against con icts of interest Do they reveal identity and contact information Do they publically correct errors TYPES OF NEWSPAPERS 00000 Smalllocal papers feature consensusoriented journalism Regional and National Newspapers focus on con ictoriented journalism Ethnic and Minority Newspapers played a major role in assimilating immigrants into American society as well as helping them retain and solidify their cultural identity African American racial pride voice for antislavery and abolitionist movement daily activities of black communities weddings births deaths graduations meetings religious functions Spanish Language Asian American many immigrants from Asian countries Native American Arab American 1960s underground press questioned mainstream political policies and conventional values new wave of thinkers questioned official reports distributed by public relations agents government spokespeople and conventional press ECONOMICS OF NEWSPAPERS 0 Money In The majority of newspapers revenue comes from selling advertising space which can take up as much as onehalf to twothirds of large newspapers pages This is hard for online publications because ads are free of charge They are trying to make up the difference by charging for online access to their news content after readers exceed a number of free monthly visits 0 Money Out Overhead rent and utilities salaries and wages marketing and sales wire services may publications have staff nationwide to submit photos videos and stories and feature syndicates SALARIES AND WAGES 0 General assignment reporters handle all sorts of stories that might emerge or break in a given day 0 Specialty reporters assigned to particular beats police courts schools local and national government or topics education religion health environment technology 0 Bureau reporters file reports from other major cities 0 Reduction in newsroom headcount CHALLENGES FACING NEWSPAPERS TODAY 0 Decline in readership Since the rise of television 0 In an effort to maintain competition the government Sanctioned J OA s but has had limited Success 0 The formation and rise of newspaper chains has left power over news in fewer hands 0 Digitization of news content has shifted advertising patterns and newspapers are experimenting with paywalls 0 Rise of blogs has raised concerns among critics about the loss of reporting and documentation in journalism and the validity of some blogs as a reliable news source 0 Citizen journalism use of eyewitness accounts integration of user comments or blogs 1nto news coverage news broken on web using public to develop news NEWSPAPERS IN DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY 0 Many cities have just one newspaper that covers issues important to upper and middle class 0 Rise of newspaper chains leads to less variety 0 We have to watch legitimacy of news sources QUIZ 1 What were the first newspapers What did they evolve into Who read them How did they make money 0 Answer The printing press allowed news to be accelerated and led to the creation of the first colonial newspapers in the late 17 th century that evolved into our editorial pages and business sections Readership was largely confined to educated or wealthy men who controlled local politics and commerce Money for the first newspapers came in from subscriptions and political parties 2 What invention in the Industrial Revolution enabled papers to become a mass medium and allowed the rise of the middle class and increased literacy What were different about them Answer 2 Penny papers enabled papers to become a mass medium and allowed the rise of the middle class and increased literacy First penny papers included New York Sun Which favored human interest stories Previously newspapers had been funded primarily by the political parties that sponsored them their content emphasized overt political Views Editors began putting daily reporting on front page and political Viewpoints on editorial page 3 What were the natural progression of history stages of newspapers according to Lippmann Answer 1 Press as monopoly government 2 political parties 3 more people based 4 professional erajournalism as a profession Magazines CHAPTER4T TERMS x Magazine broadly refers to any collection of articles stories and advertisements published on a nondaily cycle such as weekly or monthly x Muckrakers investigative reporters x GeneralInterest magazines publications that offered occasional investigative articles but also covered a wide variety of topics aimed at a broad national audiencesuch as recent developments in government medicine or society as Photojournalism the use of photographs to augment editorial content High quality photos gave general interest magazines a visual advantage over radio as Passalong readership the total number of people who come into contact with a single copy of a magazine x Trade publications specialty magazines aimed at narrowly defined audiences supply news spot quotquot I quot0 col M toVV relevant to specific manufacturing trades professional fields and business sectors as Supermarket tabloids notorious for the overthetop sensationalizing of stories They are large national versions of tabloids gossip magazines usually published weekly x Webzines online magazines that started up online and have stayed there 3 Regional editions national magazines whose content is tailored to the interests of different geographic areas For example Sports Illustrated often prints five different regional versions of its College Football Preview and March Madness Preview editions picturing a different local star on each of the five covers x Split run editions the editorial content remains the same but the magazine includes a few pages of ads purchased by local or regional companies 3 Demographic editions target particular groups of consumers In this case market researchers identify subscribers primarily by occupation class and zip code Time magazine for example developed special editions of its magazine for top management highincome zip code areas and ultrahighincome professional managerial households as Evergreen subscription an automatically renewed subscription unless subscribers request that the automatic renewal be stopped x Desktop publishing enables aspiring publishereditor to write design lay out and print the publication or post it online as Megalogs limited distribution publications for client companies by custompublishing divisions for large publishers x Became a national mass medium before newspapers x The first magazines were influenced by European newspapers of the 17 century that appeared in France in the form of bookseller catalogues and notices that book publishers inserted in newspapers The first political magazine was called the Review As the 18 century unfolded a rising middle class increased literacy and advancements in printing technology helped magazines spread to America where colonial leaders used the medium to discuss important issues such as big questions like how taxation should work how much self rule colonies should have and how Indians should be treated It served politicians the educated and the merchant class They gave voice to people who had decided to break away from England and create a new independent nation The first one appeared in Philadelphia and failed but inspired those in Boston to launch at 19 century American magazines were specialized and were general interest The Post starting evolving from original essays and reprints to incorporate news poetry essays play reviews and writings of popular authors first appeal to women at 20 century Demand for national as opposed to local magazines increased due to increases in literacy and education faster printing technology and improvements in mail delivery Adding to that the illustrations of magazines heightened appeal These factors helped move magazines to mass medium status Photographs led to photojournalism EVOLUTION OF MODERN AMERICAN MAGAZINES 3 Magazines were able to reach a wider audience due to distribution and production cost decline used conveyer systemsassembly lines advertisers began to turn them to capture consumer attention which led to a new type of newspaper reporting muckraking x The middle class created a market for general interest magazines where photojournalism was a key aspect The popularity of these magazines were market by their high passalong readership 3 Most notable general interest magazines were Saturday Evening Post reversed direction of muckraking by celebrating business boom of the decade Reader s Digest printed condensed versions of selected articles from other magazines most popular magazine in the world inexpensive production costs low price pocketsize format Time lnterpretivejournalism assigned reporterresearcher teams to cover newsworthy events rewrite editor would shape teams findings into articles presenting a point of view on the events covered photojournalism national international news and Life oversized pictorial weekly extensive photo spreads passalong readership 17 million at Television s rising popularity put many general interest magazines out of business in the 1950s Some magazines fought back by focusing their content on topics not covered by TV programmers and by featuring short articles heavily illustrated with photos Two examples are TV Guide launched in 1953 to exploit the nation s growing fascination with television published TV listings now is a full sized single edition national magazine that focuses on entertainment and lifestyle news and People celebrity crazy celebrity profiles and human interest stories newsstand and supermarket sales small articles 13 length of typical x Muckrakers exposed social ills many for indstial jobsan imgratiowhie M H 39 leading to much needed reforms as Newspaper reporters interested in writing about social change turned to magazines because they could write longer more analytical pieces as Magazines were competing with different media radio high quality photos could convey what radio couldn t television ads were spending money on TV magazines served certain niche audiences where TV didn t yet such as Playboy DI x 39 0 ll x x General interest magazines have now given way to highly specialized magazines appealing to narrower audiences and niche markets Some areas of specialization include men s and women s magazines playboy men s health maxim entertainment leisure and sports magazines sports illustrated rolling stone national geographic agespecific magazines seventeen elite magazines New Yorkerappeals to highly educated audiences often living in urban areas minority magazines African American gaylesbian Spanishspeaking and alternative magazines most magazines serve relatively small groups of readers politics either left or right circulation relatively small but exert significant influence on politics by stimulating public debate Trade magazines specialty magazines aimed at narrowly defined audiences supply news spot trends share data disseminate expert insights relevant to specific manufacturing trades professional fields and business sectors have narrowly targeted advertising content x Supermarket Tabloid features bizarre human interest stories gruesome murder tales violent accident accounts unexplained phenomena stories and malicious celebrity gossip as Internet Specialized magazines can further extend their reach to target audiences some published in both print and online webzines Slate Salon ECONOMICS OF MAGAZINES x Magazine publishers make money through advertisers As a result many magazines have developed different editions to target specific audiences and guarantee advertising revenue Average is 50 ad copy and 50 editorial content Editors have to be careful to avoid offending advertisers For example regional editions split run editions demographic editions 3 Magazine publishers take in revenue from newsstand and subscription sales One strategy is the evergreen subscription Another is controlled circulations which is a business or other type of organization that sponsors the magazine and the published issues are given free to readers x Magazine publishers spend money on the development of content freelance writers staff salaries freelance fees production computer hardware and software desktop publishing paper and printing sales and marketing gathering and analyzing subscriber data to see who s renewing their subscriptions and why and who isn t and why as well as designing marketing campaigns to attract new readers and distribution maintenance of subscriber mailing lists postage and fees for displaying and selling published issues through newsstands as To survive many magazines have merged into large chains often backed by media conglomerates This strategy provides more funding for magazines and enables them to lower their costs by centralizing basic functions Many large publishers have also generated revenue by producing limited distribution publications magalogs that combine glossy magazines with the sales pitch of retail catalogs EFFECT OF MAGAZINES ON OUR DEMOCRATIC SOCTEFY X Early magazines had a powerful national voice and united separate communities around significant political and social issues also provided an important venue for muckrakers that led to much needed reforms Specialization today no longer fosters a strong sense of national identity Contemporary commercial magazines provide essential information about politics society and culture Help us form opinions about the big issues of the day and to make decisions Owing to increasing dependence on advertising revenue some publications view their readers as consumers first and citizens second To keep advertising flowing editorial staff may decide to keep controversial content out of pages Less restricted by deadline pressure than newspapers PHOTOGRAPHY IN MAGAZINES x Photojournalism 1858 Roger Fenton of Sunday Times of LondonCrimean War not of the moment but aftermath Many striking photos stick in people s minds 911 and Migrant woman as Photographs and Manipulation visual and emotional impact on viewer what is visual truth the camera never lies manipulation can take two photos and make a composite do it for propaganda purposes to dramatize controversy to make it more aesthetically pleasing Ethics and responsibility Example models seemingly smaller Example OJ Simpson Trial Newsweek versus Time darker composition racial issues ln class video magazine photos go through as many as 40 l9t0UCh95 QUIZ 1 What39s the difference between splitrun editions demographic editions and regional editions Answer on 0 on I on n 1 A no on Iquot 39 0 0 to the interests of different geographic areas For example Sports Illustrated often prints five different regional versions of its College Football Preview and March Madness Preview editions picturing a different local star on each of the five COVE FS Split run editions the editorial content remains the same but the magazine includes a few pages of ads purchased by local or regional companies Demographic editions target particular groups of consumers In this case market researchers identify subscribers primarily by occupation class and zip code Time magazine for example developed special editions of its magazine for top management highincome zip code areas and ultrahigh income professionalmanagerial households 2 How were the first magazines used in the United States and who read them Answer The firg magazines were influenced by European newspapers of the 17 century that appeared in France in the form of bookseller catalogues and notices that book publishers inserted in newspapers The first political magazine was called the Review As the 18 century unfolded a rising middle class increased literacy and advancements in printing technology helped magazines spread to America where colonial leaders used the medium to discuss important issues such as big questions like how taxation should work how much selfrule colonies should have and how Indians should be treated It served politicians the educated and the merchant class They gave voice to people who had decided to break away from England and create a new independent nation The first one appeared in Philadelphia and failed but inspired those in Boston to launch 3 What happened to magazines in the 19th and 20th centuries Answer 19Lentury Ameri and were general interest The Post starting evolving from original essays and reprints to incorporate news poetry essays play reviews and writings of popular authors first appeal to women 20 century Demand for national as opposed to local magazines increased due to increases in literacy and education faster printing technology and improvements in mail delivery Adding to that the illustrations of magazines heightened appeal These factors helped move magazines to mass medium status Photographs led to photojournalism 4 What were the most notable general interest magazines for the middle class Answer The most notaple general interest magazines were Saturday Evening Post reversed direction of muckraking by celebrating business boom of the decade Reader s Digest printed condensed versions of selected articles from other magazines most popular magazine in the world inexpensive production costs low price pocket size format Time Interpretive journalism assigned reporterresearcher teams to cover newsworthy events rewrite editor would shape teams findings into articles presenting a point of view on the events covered photojournalism nationalinternational news and Life oversized pictorial weekly extensive photo spreads pass along readership 17 million