Cuban and Shipps pg. 1-8 reading notes
Cuban and Shipps pg. 1-8 reading notes 29535
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Cuban and Shipps Notes pages 18 Vocab ● Human capital: the skills, knowledge, and experience possessed by an individual or population, viewed in terms of their value or cost to an organization or country. ● Dichotomy: a division or contrast between two things that are or are represented as being opposed or entirely different. ● School choice: School choice is a term or label given to a wide array of programs offering students and their families alternatives to publicly provided schools, to which students are generally assigned by the location of their family residence. ● Antebellum: occurring or existing before a particular war, especially the American Civil War ● Secular religion: Secular religion is a term that has been used to characterize capitalism, communism, and other nontheistic communal belief systems. ● The Federalist Papers: The Federalist (later known as The Federalist Papers) is a collection of 85 articles and essays written (under the pseudonym Publius) by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution. ● Equity: the quality of being fair and impartial ● E pluribus unum: out of many, one (the motto of the US). ● A loaded word: Such wording is also known as highinference language or language persuasive techniques. Loaded words and phrases have strong emotional implications and involve strongly positive or negative reactions beyond their literal meaning. ● Federalism: the federal principle or system of government. ● "the politics of federalism in Canada" ● Valueladen questions: presupposing the acceptance of a particular set of values ● Vouchers: a small printed piece of paper that entitles the holder to a discount or that may be exchanged for goods or services. Main concepts of the reading (in order) ● American’s expected that their public schools (common schools) would build citizens, cultivate moral and social development of the individual students and bind diverse groups into one nation ● Reform proposals have called for more individual parental choice through government funded vouchers to send children to different schools ○ Advocates of choice see this as a consumer commodity ■ private schools ■ independent charter schools ■ public schools contracted out to private entrepreneurs ● Parents having a choice builds social capital (networking and trust, common good, shared values within schools system) ● Sometimes when people help their individual self they can help the common good too ○ Example: Instead of going to public school and support tax supporters and community, they can choose their school, create trust with families who have same families and chose the same school ● Private sector management has become the model for public school systems ○ “Downsized” ○ “Restructured” ○ “Outsourced” ● School buses, lunchrooms and sports stadiums advertise for companies ○ Corporate logos are on school corridors ○ “Is being a good citizen only about being consumer making individual choices among products?” ○ What’s the point of making us pay taxes for public schools? What is our tax money going towards in the schools? ● Tension between Public & Private schools (cultivating the common good & serving individual interests) ○ Early 19th century: (antebellum school reformer) Horace Mann and (postbellum school reformer) William T. Harris believed that publically funded, locally controlled schools open to all children would consist of democratic values, ensure the survival of the public and stability of social order ■ Education is the same as the public good ○ Mid 19th century: public schools were expected to teach basic literacy, moral character and build good citizens ○ End of the Civil War ■ Task at hand: Turning 4 million exslaves into citizens ■ (ExConfederate states) Federal government provided free public schooling for millions of black children and adults ● Forging linkages between federal action & locally controlled schools, race & citizenship ● Schooling exslaves for social democracy lasted a decade, federal role in educating poor/minority children unaddressed for another century ○ Early 1900s: new social reform changes makes public schools very controlled/detailed/explicit ■ Prepared students for industrial jobs ■ Competed with Britain and Germany ■ Spread vocational education which is education that prepares people to work in a trade, in a craft, as a technician, or in support roles in professions such as engineering, accountancy, nursing, medicine, architecture, or law ● Solving social problems ● Increased taxpayers/parental expectations for what a school could do for community & individual children ● Tax supported public schools (including segregated ones) were expected to: ○ Americanize newcomers and produce vocationally skilled graduates who could fill skilled jobs in the industrial workforce ○ Make students literate ○ Prepare them for moral/civic duties ○ Middle of the 20th century: Individual, civic and economic purposes for public schools were set in stone ■ Thought high school diploma was necessary to achieve a higher social standing or successful job no matter what ethnicity you were ■ Public school became the solution to everything in the eyes of Americans ● Large political/social/economic problems of Cold War ● Racial Segregation ● International Economic Competition ○ End of 20th century: ■ Hard core problems put public schools under scrutiny ● Poverty ● Social Stratification ● Racial inequities ● Increased immigration from Latin America and Asia ● Desire for increased market share ■ Improvementminded public officials/Corporate Critics found issues with unprepared high school graduates ○ Early 1980s: public officials are scared U.S was losing economic primacy ■ Reforms calling for restructured schools, vouchers, charter schools, and making schools more businesslike ○ Beginning of 21st century: Couldn’t meet expectations ■ Lacked pertinent resources ● Money ● Time ● People to teach/administer ■ Tension between seeking Individual liberty & social order in a democracy, between equal opportunity and the common good ■ The constitutional system of checks and balances that gave out authority among the federal & state governments ■ Compromises (including Bill of Rights) were made to solve the conflicts due to overlapping power of state/federal governments and individual rights ● Personal Liberty vs. Equality and Common Good ○ How much freedom local agents (like teachers or social workers) and clients (like students and the poor) ○ Example: Should a person dependent upon food stamps get automatic rights to her privacy and people knowing she's on food stamps and choose to not have social workers know? ○ Many parents/educators wanted students to learn to be skeptical and independent, raise questions and challenge authority ● How can we renew the meaning of equity so that the individual initiative is rewarded while sustaining a commitment to to e pluribus unum? ○ Tensions over competing definitions of equal opportunity arose when some reformers pressed for special programs for neglected families and students (ex. Ex slaves, mexicanamerican immigrants, and students who are at risk, special, disabled) while others called for programs directed to all clients, regardless of capacity or circumstance ● Social inequities are in both the marketbased economy and the school ○ Increasing mobility, cultural diversity and dependence on technology in a modern society requires that state/federal control over schools/public agencies should expand to better confront serious national problems ○ Higher academic/tougher accountability standards make a better school ● Inherent public school dilemmas to public schools in a democracy ○ How can individual liberty and the common good be better reconciled within taxsupported public schools? ○ How can the tension between social integration and social stratification be eased, both in a larger society and within public schools? ○ What directions should school reformers pursue in reconstructing the ideal of the common good as a goal for a public school amid unrelenting tensions over conflicting values? ● When self interest trumps the common good, we all lose ● Having diversity means learning how to create connections with different types of people? It’s all about the experience and creating relationships with others.
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