Week 3 Notes: Corrections
Week 3 Notes: Corrections 2009
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Molly Notetaker on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2009 at East Carolina University taught by Chad R. Jordan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Correctional Systems in Criminal Justice at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Week 3 Notes: Corrections 9/6/16 ● Types of Sanctions ○ Community supervision ■ Tack on to make punishment proportional ○ U.S V. Booker ■ For flexible for judges to sentence people ○ Continuum of Sanctions ■ Lease punitive >>> most punitive (fines>death penalty) ○ Monetary ○ Probation (calibrate the sanction) ■ Equal punishment for the crime ○ Intermediate Sanctions ■ Saving beds in prisons, Treatment purposes, the idea of flexibility in sentencing ■ Make it original to that offender ■ Ex: Split sentencing \ ● Incarcerations ○ <30% of convicted offenders incarcerated ○ Mixed finds on weather incarceration reduced or increases recidivism ■ Incapacitation more than rehabilitations ○ Jails (controlled and supervised by the sheriff, generally 1 year or less) ■ Held for court ■ Minor violations ○ Supermax ● Sentencing ○ Probation ■ Are they going on probation? No...than they most likely are getting locked up ● Seriousness of the crime, prior record, mitigating and aggravating factors ○ Mitigating and aggravating factors ■ Mitigating: reduced culpability, increases chance of lesser sentence ● Ex: crime of passion? ■ Aggravating: increases chance of harder sentence ○ Indeterminate sentences: range of sentencing term/time ○ Determinate Sentences: fixed sentence ■ Good time can possibly cause the judge to release you ■ Determinant discretionary sentence: can be adjusted due to mitigated and aggravated factors but is fixed once it is set ○ Mandatory minimum sentences ■ Have to serve at least 8085% of the sentence ■ For more serious violent crimes ■ Must serve most of their sentences ■ Ex: 3 strikes and you're out, habitual offender law (NC) ○ Increase in indeterminate sentences ○ U.S Sentencing Commission ○ Sentence reductions for drug traffickers ■ Letting our people who are not committing more violent crimes, mostly about money and how much it costs to keep this inmates in prison ○ Sentencing disparities ■ Two people doing the same things but getting completely different sentences ■ Geography and ○ Smarter Sentencing Act ■ Have 6 months to show that the release of these drug offenders is saving money in a report ■ Requires the Attorney General to report on how the reduced expenditures on federal corrections and cost savings resulting from this Act will be used to help reduce overcrowding, increase investment in law enforcement and crime prevention, and reduce recidivism ○ Economic motives behind most reforms 90816 ● Criminological Theories ○ Individual personality traits: people have individual traits that lead to criminal activity, they are psychological in nature ■ Medical Model: The idea that crime is a sickness, the criminals are victims and we need to treat them ■ Defiance, narcissism, mental instability, resentment, mistrust of society ect. ○ Classical theory (Beccaria and Bentham) ■ Punishment should be proportional ■ Hedonism: pleasure pain principle ○ Behavior Psychology ■ Operant conditioning: training a response, in hopes of changing behavioral responses to situations in criminals to be more positive ● Small changes like who the criminal hangs around ● Based on the notion that certain environmental factors strengthen positive and negative responses ■ Reinforcers: ● Positive Reinforcement: rewards for a desired behaviors ○ Good report card → revises trip to get favorite ice cream ● Negative Reinforcement: Something is being taken away due because they did what is asked ○ Missed parol appointments > taking to court and added on punishments like curfew...they learn their lesson and follow the rules and then get the curfew taken away ■ Punishments ● Positive Punishment: presenting a negative consequence after an undesired behavior is exhibited ○ A child picks his nose during class and the teacher reprimands him in front of his classmates ● Negative Punishment: adding a negative consequence after an undesired behavior ○ taking away a certain desired item after the undesired behavior happens in order to decrease future responses ○ Social Learning ■ Start learning the philosophies and rules of the people they are around ● Exposure to crime teaches crime ● You learn in a social environment from the people you spend the most time with and are important to you ○ Strain theory/ institutional anomie ■ Obstacles/barriers to success may increase crime ■ The idea that if it is too hard to get to the things that you want than people may resort to the easy way out and commit crimes ● They see that their goals are unreachable so they find another way ○ Labeling theory ■ Stigmas may promote selffulfilling prophecy of criminal behavior ■ The idea that if you label someone as criminal especially with juveniles they will just go with the label, and become what it says you are ● People start looking at you different ● You might lose some selfconcept, the idea of who you are is in a way stripped from you via the label ○ Conflict criminology ■ Inequality and power increase crime ■ The high class makes the laws and are enforcing on the low class
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