Psych Chapter 2 Notes from Text Book
Psych Chapter 2 Notes from Text Book PSYC 1300
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayra Reyes on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1300 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Herb W Agan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Houston.
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Chapter 2 from “Mastering the World of Psychology” by Samuel E. Wood, Ellen Green Wood, Denise Boyd, 5 edition Pg 39. Lesion: injury to a specific part of the nervous system *scientists used to rely on studying changes in people with injuries to understand the nervous system Electroencephalogram (EEG): a record of brain wave activity *can’t show what happens in individual neurons Microelectrode: small wire used to monitor activity in a single neuron Pg 40. CT scan: “a brain scanning technique that uses a rotating computerized x ray tube to produce cross sectional images of the structure of the brain” (can’t show brain activity) MRI: “a diagnostic scanning technique that produces high resolution images of the structure of the brain” (no harmful x rays used, can’t show brain activity” PET scan: brain imaging technique, looks at patterns in basic functions like blood flow and oxygen use to show brain activity Functional MRI: shows brain activity and structure better than PET 1) Requires no injection of radioactive material 2) More precise than PET scan 3) Detects changes in seconds rather than a minute Neuron: a specialized cell that conducts impulses through the nervous system Neurotransmitters: specialized chemical that promotes the transmission of impulses from one neuron to the other Afferent neutron: sensory, help you feel Efferent neutron: motor, helps you move Interneurons: carry information through nervous system Neutrons are made up of 3 parts- 1. Cell body: part of the neuron containing nucleus and metabolic function 2. Dendrites: branch like extensions that connect neurons and receive signals 3. Axon: “The slender, tail-like extension of the neuron that transmits signals to the dendrites or cell body of other neurons and to muscles, glands, and other parts of the body” Pg 42. Axon Terminal: Bulbous end of the axon where signals move from the axon of one neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another. Glial Cells: Specialized cells in the brain and spinal cord that support neurons, remove waste (such as dead neurons), and perform the “maintenance” in the brain *also involved in pain sensation COMMUNICATION BETWEEN NEURONS Synaptic Clefts: tiny, fluid filled gaps that separate exon terminals from neurons Pg 43. Synapse: the connection that allows neurons to communicate through the synaptic clefts Resting Potential: negative electric potential in the axon membrane of a neuron Action Potential: “The sudden reversal of the resting potential, which initiates the firing of a neuron,” positive electrical potential After a neuron fires enters a refractory period, meaning it cannot fire again for 1 to 2 milliseconds. All-or-None Law: either neuron fires or it doesn’t Weak Stimulus: causes very few neurons to fire at once or to fire very slowly Strong Stimulus: causes neurons to fire hundreds of times per second Pg 44. Myelin Sheath: “The white, fatty coating wrapped around some axons that acts as insulation and enables impulses to travel much faster” *with a damaged myelin sheath or without one, signals across neurons are interrupted and might lead to disease like Multiple Sclerosis Nodes of Ranvier: gap in Myelin Sheath where electrical impulse is regenerated Synaptic Vesicles: many small, sphere-shaped containers with thin membranes in the axon terminal that hold the neurotransmitters Pg 45. Receptors: Protein molecules on the surfaces of dendrites and cell bodies that have distinctive shapes and will interact only with specific neurotransmitters *have to fit like a key with neurotransmitters to work together Synaptic Vesicles Neurotransmitter Production Process: 1. A neuron’s cell body is always prepared to make more neurotransmitters 2. Parts of unused neurotransmitters are recycled 3. New neurotransmitters are taken back to the axon terminal, ready for use (reuptake) Reuptake: “The process by which neurotransmitters are taken from the synaptic cleft back into the axon terminal for later use, thus terminating their excitatory or inhibitory effect on the receiving neuron” Acetylcholine: “exerts excitatory effects on the skeletal muscle fibers, causing them to contract so that the body can move” *keeps heart from beating too quickly Dopamine: affects attention span, learning, pleasure, etc. *plays a role in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Norepinephrine: affects every day functions like eating, sleeping, and waking up Endorphins: provide relief from pain and feelings of pleasure Epinephrine: affects metabolism of glucose and use of energy Serotonin: affects mood and appetite Glutamate: activate parts of the brain involved in learning, thinking, and feeling (emotion) GABA: “facilitates neural inhibition in the central nervous system” Human Nervous Systems THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Pg 47. Peripheral Nervous System: The nerves connecting the central nervous system to the rest of the body *consists of two parts: somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system which further divide into other systems Somatic Nervous System: consists of (1) nerves sending information to help function of the five senses (2) motor nerves that help move your skeletal and muscular system *makes it possible for you to sense your environment and to move, typically controlled by our own conscious Autonomic Nervous System: transmits messages between the central nervous system and the glands, heart, and smooth muscles (such as those in the large arteries and the gastrointestinal system) *operates without our control or knowing, further divides into two parts—the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems Pg 48. Sympathetic Nervous System: system that prepares the body for action in an emergency when it senses danger Fight or Flight Response: body’s reaction to danger: to fight or run away Parasympathetic Nervous System: relaxes your body and heart rate once emergency is over Pg 49. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Central Nervous System (CNS): system comprised of the brain and the spinal cord Spinal Cord: An extension of the brain linked to the body, sends messages between the brain and the peripheral nervous system. * can function without the brain if there were an injury preventing connection Hindbrain: contains structures that regulate physiological functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure Brainstem: the point where the spinal cord enlarges as it enters the brain and handles functions critical to physical survival *life threatening if damaged Medulla: part of the brainstem that controls heartbeat, blood pressure, breathing, coughing, and swallowing automatically Pons: connection between medulla and the cerebellum, plays role in body movement Reticular Formation: “A structure in the brainstem that plays a crucial role in arousal and attention and that screens sensory messages entering the brain” *ex: there’s a car crash, this will take your attention away from the radio and focus it immediately to help you react and brake your car Cerebellum: helps body movements, muscle tone, and posture Midbrain: “Area that contains structures linking the physiological functions of the hindbrain to the cognitive functions of the forebrain” Ex: if you burn your finger, this system figures out what to do so you don’t burn your finger again Pg 51. Substantia Nigra: structure in the midbrain that controls unconscious motor movements like riding bikes or going up stairs Forebrain: where cognitive and motor functions are controlled, consists of two parts: 1. Thalamus: “located above the brainstem, that acts as a relay station for information flowing into or out of the forebrain” 2. Hypothalamus: “A small but influential brain structure that regulates hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, internal body temperature, other body functions, and a wide variety of emotional behaviors” *functions like an alarm that automatically has certain needs scheduled: like wake up times Limbic System: “A group of structures in the brain, including the amygdala and hippocampus, that are collectively involved in emotional expression, memory, and motivation” Amygdala: part of limbic system that plays a role in emotion, specifically in responding to unpleasant or punishing stimuli, helps us avoid dangerous situations Hippocampus: part of the limbic system that plays a central role in the storing of new memories, responses to new experiences, and navigational ability. Without it you can’t remember any new information like phone numbers or directions PARTS OF THE CEREBRUM Pg 53. Cerebral Cortex: is the forebrain structure that is responsible for the functions we usually associate with the word brain, gray covering over the cerebrum White Myelinated Axons: beneath the cortex, white matter, connects the neurons of the cortex with those of other brain regions. Cerebrum: The largest structure of the human brain, made up of two cerebral hemispheres: left and right, connected by the corpus callosum and covered by the cerebral cortex Cerebral Hemispheres: “The right and left halves of the cerebrum, covered by the cerebral cortex and connected by the corpus callosum; they control movement and feeling on the opposing sides of the body” Corpus Callosum: “The thick band of nerve fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and makes possible the transfer of information and the synchronization of activity between the hemispheres” Pg 53. Convultions: numerous folds or wrinkles in the brain The cerebral cortex contains three types of areas: (1) sensory areas, where the 5 senses are activated in vision, temperature, hearing, etc. (2) “motor areas, which control voluntary movement (3) association areas: which house memories and are involved in thought, perception, and language” Finally, the brain assigns different functions to different regions of the cerebral cortex: 1. division involving the left and right sides of the cortex 2. “areas known as the lobes —the front (frontal), top (parietal), side (temporal), and back (occipital) of the cortex” THE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES Pg 54. Lateralization: “The specialization of one of the cerebral hemispheres to handle a particular function” Left Hemisphere: controls the right side of the body, coordinates movement, handles most of the language functions like speaking and writing, math, analytical thought Right Hemisphere: controls the left side of the body, is specialized for creativity, musical processing, and emotional thinking Split-Brain Operation: “A surgical procedure in which the corpus callosum is cut, separating the cerebral hemispheres” 4 CEREBRAL LOBES Pg 57. Frontal Lobes: largest of the brain’s lobes, puts the pieces together when performing tasks and processing information, monitors understanding Prefrontal Cortex: part of the frontal lobe directly behind the forehead that controls executive processing Executive Processing: “you experience all of these tasks as a unified whole instead of a collection of fragmentary, disconnected activities” Motor Cortex: “strip of tissue at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary body movement and participates in learning and cognitive events” Pg 59. Broca’s Area: area in the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that controls the production of speech sounds: if it’s damaged, one will struggle to speak Broca’s Aphasia: “An impairment in the physical ability to produce speech sounds or, in extreme cases, an inability to speak at all; caused by damage to Broca’s area” Parietal Lobes: “The lobes that contain the somatosensory cortex (where touch, pressure, temperature, and pain register) and other areas that are responsible for body awareness and spatial orientation” Somatosensory Cortex: strip of tissue at the front of the parietal lobes where touch, pressure, temperature, and pain register in the cerebral cortex. Occipital Lobes: involved in the reception and interpretation of visual information (they contain the primary visual cortex) Primary Visual Cortex: Helps us take notice of visuals and recognize what images are familiar and which are new Pg 60. Temporal Lobes: in charge of interpreting sounds and auditory stimuli Primary Auditory Cortex: part of the lobes that registers sounds *destruction of these causes loss of hearing Wernicke’s Area: language area in the left temporal lobe, helps to understand and formulate words Wernicke’s Aphasia: Aphasia that results from damage to Wernicke’s area and in which the phrases or words one hears no longer make sense CHANGES IN THE BRAIN Pg 61. Synaptogenesis: process of the growth of both dendrites and axons Pruning: process by which the brain removes any unnecessary synapses (created through synaptogenesis) -One’s age affects the amount of activity from neurotransmitters within the synapses Myelination: is the process by which myelin sheaths develop around the axons. This happens as an individual develops which explains why children and adult’s memory capability varies -Children under the age of 8 have difficulty using navigation skills Plasticity: ability of the brain to adapt to changes such as brain damage -By the age of 30, brain weight begins to decrease and causes imbalance in old age Stroke: An event in the cardiovascular system in which a blood clot or plug of fat blocks an artery and cuts off the blood supply to a particular area of the brain” GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE BRAIN - white matter is related to the amount of neural communication -Women’s rains have more gray matter because they can better approach emotional situations -Whereas, men have more white matter because they perform better with logical tasks like sorting geometric figures Endocrine System: A system of ductless glands in the body that produce hormones and release them into the bloodstream Hormone: “A chemical substance that is manufactured and released in one part of the body and affects other parts of the body” Pg 64. –Hormones, only once coming into contact with body cells, are aware of their assigned role in the body Ex: the reproductive tissues in women’s bodies, like the ovaries and adrenal glands, produce progesterone Pituitary Gland: “master gland” of the body, releases hormones that activate other endocrine glands and promote growth, the amount of hormone released determines your height Pineal Gland: in charge of producing melatonin, which controls the sleep/wakefulness cycle. Pg 65. Thyroid Gland: “The endocrine gland that produces thyroxine and regulates metabolism,” makes energy Parathyroid glands: produces PTH, a hormone that helps the body absorb minerals into the bloodstream, dysfunctions of this gland can lead to depression and memory loss Thymus Gland: needed for the production of white blood cells, essential to the immune system Pancreas: responsible for regulating the amount of sugar in the bloodstream, releases appropriate amounts of insulin and glucagon Adrenal Glands: release hormones that prepare the body for emergencies and stressful situations, involved in fight or flight responses Gonads: The ovaries in females and the testes in males; these glands produce sex hormones which control the production of pubic hair and a woman’s menstrual cycle BEHAVIORAL GENETICS Genes: segments of DNA located on the chromosomes, basic units with the codes for one’s hereditary traits Chromosomes: “Rod-shaped structures in the nuclei of body cells, which contain all the genes and carry all the genetic information necessary to make a human being.” -22 of the 23 pairs of chromosomes are matching pairs, called autosomes, and each member of these pairs carries genes for particular physical and mental traits. Zygote: a single cell -“The chromosomes in the 23rd pair are called sex chromosomes because they carry the genes that determine a person’s sex.” Pg 66. Genotype: An individual’s genetic makeup. Phenotype: An individual’s actual characteristics. Dominant–Recessive Pattern: rule by which the presence of a single dominant gene causes that trait to be visible but two genes must be present for the showing of a recessive trait Polygenic Inheritance: A pattern of inheritance in which many genes influence a trait Ex: skin color Multifactorial Inheritance: A pattern by which a trait is influenced by both genes and environmental factors Ex: height vs malnutrition Sex-Linked Inheritance: involves the X and Y chromosomes, if an X chromosome carries a harmful gene then a woman will typically have the other X chromosome to offset its effects, however men don’t have the X pair (since men are XY), thus making men more likely to carry disorders in their X chromosome Behavioral Genetics: “A field of research that uses twin studies and adoption studies to investigate the relative effects of heredity and environment on behavior.”