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History 103 Notes

by: Amia Notetaker

History 103 Notes Hist 103

Amia Notetaker

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About this Document

These notes are what we have been going over so far in history 103. A lot of it has to do with approaches women and gender history. Main ideas are bolded and dates go with the notes as well.
Hist 103: Global Problems In History
Professor Marie Winklemann
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amia Notetaker on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 103 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by Professor Marie Winklemann in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Hist 103: Global Problems In History in History at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.


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Date Created: 09/08/16
Approaches Women and Gender History August 30, 2016 Question:  How have we typically been taught history? Who makes it into our  textbooks, national holidays, oval office, united nations?  ­Positive approach on American history, rather than pointing out the negatives. Usually  don’t have women because women’s voices are overlooked and contributions are  diminished.  Question:  Who do we remember and who are we taught is important?  Where are the women, and why are they left out?  ­The creation of history is not unbiased ­The large absence of women in our dominant histories and textbooks is not because  women did not do important things in the past. ­Women and men are both historical actors and both “make” history, but some people  are left out because our culture and our values that treat one type of history as more  important or relevant than another  Topics Covered:  Gender, Women and Slavery Gender and Imperialism  Gender and Fashion Consumerism and Global Markets Global Migration and Domestic Work September 1, 2016 ESSENTIAL QUESTION: If you hadn’t done the readings, when you  hear the word “feminism,” what do you think it means? What comes  to mind? What about the word “feminist?” ­Negative connotation. To me, feminism is equality with men. I think it is having the  belief that women can do just about anything men can do. The word feminist to me  means someone who advocates for feminism.  ­Definition: a social theory or political movement which argues that legal and social  restrictions on women must be removed in order to bring about equality of both sexes in all aspects of public and private life. (Wiktionary)  ­the belief that men and women should have equal rights and opportunities (Merriam  Webster)  ­Institutionalized oppression, Stereotype, Prejudice and Discrimination all connected  ­Institutionalized oppression: happens on a scale so large: “women shouldn’t be allowed to vote” structures of society, state or government collectively discriminate against a  person or group of people. Built into the fabric of the society.  Examples:  Stereotype­ “women aren’t as smart as men” Prejudice­ Believe women shouldn’t have an appropriate education  Discrimination­ women don’t get their education Institutionalized Oppression­ lower number of women in college  September 6, 2016 Equality?  ­Just because there was equality of access doesn’t mean your experiences were  automatically equal. Like voting for example, just because women were allowed to run,  didn’t mean that people voted for them over men.  ­Still happens even though there isn’t “legal barriers”  st “Waves” of Feminism (1  Wave) st ­1  wave was in the 1840’s to the 1920’s. The issues were: Suffrage for women, the  right to vote. 19  amendment in 1920 allowed women for the first time the right to vote.  The was one of the main issues for the feminist movement. Some of the criticisms were: moral issues, just like drinking. Largely upper white middle class women. One large  criticism: women’s assertion in having a say in moral connotation. Reinforcing the idea  that they should be the keepers of the home, then you’re missing out on the voting block that could make society more moral.  ­stereotypes, racism  Primary Source Analysis  *Posters shown in class Suffrage posters:  ­ “WOMEN bring all VOTERS into the World­Let Women Vote”  ­ “WOMEN pay taxes!!! WOMEN obey the laws! Votes for Women”  ­white middle class women  Elizabeth Cady Stanton ­ a prominent feminist   ­she was criticized for the white women class movement  ­ “how much harder would it be for non­white men to order us?” Primary Source Analysis #2 *posters shown in class ­black lower class women  ­approach to feminism was different from Stanton  ­see her on postage stamps Sojourner Truth  ­another prominent feminist  ­no equality when it comes to race. They treat the white middle class different, but black lower class different as well.  ­although there was equality with white middle class women, there wasn’t with the black women.  ­her approach to feminism is more so having equal rights because she does the same  amount of work that a man does, the only thing different is the color of her skin ­moving farther away from womanhood compared to Stanton  ­multiple feminisms, this is a prime example  “Waves” of Feminism (2  Wave) nd ­Happened during the 1960s and 1970s  ­Some of the issues were: reproductive health (birth control or abortion), equality in the  workplace, unsatisfied with being housewives, etc.  ­women again, brought up issues that they felt were still present  ­how we understand this period (some of the criticisms): similar critiques as the first  wave, still largely a white women’s movement. Not being international in scope, not  taking into consideration immigration or LGBT issues for women.  ­people start getting images of negative feminism  “Waves” of Feminism (3  Wave) rd ­from the 1990s­present time nd ­some consider this a extension of the 2  wave ­issues involved were: racial, cultural, sexual and national differences, post­colonial,  post­modern  ­not taking into consideration different forms Gender and the History of History  What are the main ideas that Joan Scott is describing in the article? 1. A History of the recent growth of Women and Gender Studies Scholarship, and  how “Gender” as a term of analysis has recently come to be use (1980’s).  2. How “Gender” as an analytic tool in the production of historical writings, has the  potential to not only include previously excluded or marginalized histories of  women, but how a gendered lens can change or shift the whole historical  narrative.  ­You can use this idea of gender to analyze a particular moment in time and this can give you a different perspective on what is going on. A lot of gender history left out of narratives that are told.  The History of Women and Gender in History  ­Women and Gender studies emerge as a distinct field of study following the hells of the 2  wave of feminism in the U.S. (1960’s­1980’s roughly)  ­Thus in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s you see an explosion  ­Part of Scott’s call was how adding gender can illuminate trades of power  ­Using “gender” rather than “women” became a way that many feminist scholars tried to  bring legitimacy to the field of studies ­History has always been shown in the perspective from men and never seen as “too  narrow”  ­Gender historians wanted to show how gender can eliminate power  ­Told us about nature of power, gender can tell us about the nature of power Joan Scott and Gender Defined  ­ “gender becomes a way of denoting cultural constructions”  ­Gender is not biologically made or determined  ­People confuse biological sex with gender ­Gender is created  ­Subjective identities: society constructs what we mean by gender  ­May have a certain biological sex, but your gender that you identify with can be  different  ­Ideas are socially created, social constructed ideas that create what it means to be a  “women” or feminine.  ­Does not have anything to do necessarily with their biological sex  ­Gender can also be performance, for example: I could identify as a women, but I might  choose to perform masculinity on some performances  Joan Scott and Gender  Quote on page 1057  ­Biological sex is how we think of sexual orientation but it is not the same thing  ­May have female organs, but it does not matter in terms of who we are attracted to  Gender and Historical Inquiry  ­This quote gets to her second point  ­Gender can shift our narratives and how we think of history  ­It is good to have economic histories, but to have a more comprehensive  understanding we need to ask different questions and look at other sources  Scott’s Gender Definition  ­Gender is one of the ways in which we have come to understand society and in which  society is stratified  ­How we understand our society is highly influenced on how we define gender  ­In systems of power, like our government, those that are in power often rely on  gendered understandings to maintain that power ­She describes these articulations in authoritarian and democratic societies  ­With holding votes for women, is how power and society is constructed in accords to  gender  ­Gender influences what power looks like in society  ­Relationships of power can signify through gender  ­Helps us highlight and illuminate means of power that would otherwise go unnoticed  September 8, 2016  Intersectionality and Identity Politics  ­Identity Politics­ involves politics involved claiming one’s own identity as a member of  an oppressed or marginalized group as a political point of departure, and thus identity  becomes a major factor. Involve celebration of a group’s uniqueness as well as analysis of particular oppression Multiple Identities that may Intersect at any given time  ­Gender­male/female ­Race­white/non­white ­Class­middle or upper/ poor or working  ­Sexual orientation­straight/queer ­Nationality­ citizen/non­citizen ­Ability­ able/disable  ­Language­ English speaker/non­English speaker ­ETC  Identity Politics and Negative Connotation? Why is this  understanding dangerous? ­These voices that represent identity politics have been use to differentiate those in  power, those who are not etc.  ­Empty these categories, pretend they don’t exist. Taught that we should be color blind  to all these identities.  ­Very dangerous, as pointed out, these categories still impact people’s lives in  significant ways. From how you’re perceived and treated on an everyday basis to how  to access resources in society, to life and death situations.  ­That’s why identity politics remains important  ­These things still impact people’s life chances and society  How does intersectionality impact people? Kimberle Crenshaw Article ­Women of color, non English speakers, etc. couldn’t access the resources at the  battered women’s shelter ­Immigrant women reluctant to leave abusive spouses because of threat deportation  ­Women that had more limited access had more obstacles to overcome because of their intersexual identities Intersectionality  ­The view that women experience oppression in varying configurations and in varying  degrees of intensity. Multiple identities will impact how someone sees society.  Intersectional Oppressive Logics  ­“jezebel”­black women(seductress) ­“dragon lady”­ Asian Women (seductress) nd “2  Wave” and Intersectionality  ­After WWII, the American middle class grew like it had not in the past  ­growth was so large and unequal if you look at rising middle class white families  compared to more ethnic families the growth was not evenly distributed  ­Segregation only just being repealed in various states in the 1960’s ­Equality of access does not equal equality of experience 


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