New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Biology notes week 3

by: Alex Weiers

Biology notes week 3 BIOL 1103K

Alex Weiers
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Introduction to Biology

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Introduction to Biology notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

bio notes from week three. I will upload the notes from 1 and two once i get them typed.
Introduction to Biology
Dr. Blaustein
Class Notes
Biology, Bio, Mitosis, Meiosis, Cell, division




Popular in Introduction to Biology

Popular in Biology

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Weiers on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1103K at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Blaustein in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 331 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at Georgia State University.


Reviews for Biology notes week 3


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/08/16
­every cell has a living outer boundary • cell membrane  • eukaryotic  the nucleus is the difference between a prokaryote and a eukaryote  ­cytoplasm,  ­cyto =cell the liquid between the nucleus and the outer membrane  pro=before the nucleus  eukaryotes have some kind of membrane bound organelle  1)prokaryotic: without nucleus  2. Eukaryotic: with nucleus  Cell growth  1. increase in size— surface area increases at slower rate than volume (S.A/ Vol.) **** cell is 60­90% water, there has to be enough surface area to support the volume. once the  cell gets to big it either dies or it has to divide to support the volume.  Volume goes up faster  than surface area. The denominator goes up faster than the numinator**** 2.  Division 1. duplication ­ replication DNA 2. separation  **chromosomes are vehicles of DNA Prokaryotic Cells ** <—— fission——> ——> prokaryotic cells  Binary Fission (cell reproduction process) 1. duplication (replication) of circular DNA 2. fissure in cell membrane, grows inward 3. DNA strands pulled apart via attachment to cell membrane 4. fissure splits into two daughter cells *fission occurs when there is not enough surface area for volume** Eukaryotic Cells<—— Mitosis—>> Mitosis = Nuclear Division Cytokinesis = cytoplasmic division Mitosis: DNA exists as a chromosome strands Placenta is mitosis without cytokinesis Eukaryotic Cells *Life cycle 1. interphase (replication occurs) (longest part of the cycle) 1. g1 phase (longest part of interphase, growth phase) (growth 1) 2. s phase (Synthesis phase, replication in preparation for Division) 3. g2 phase (final stage before cell division) 2. cell division (separation) 1. Mitosis prophase (the chromosomes condense and shorten, the nuclear envelope breaks down, and the spindle begins to form. Sprinkle microtubules attach to the chromosomes at the centromeres) (the nucleus and nucleolus have disappeared, the centromere and spindle fibers, coiled chromosomes become visible) metaphase- alignment phase ( the spindle is fully formed. the spindle microtubules have moved the chromosomes to the equator of the cell. anaphase- migration phase (chromatids separate at the centromere, becoming independent chromosomes. one former chromatid from each chromosome moves toward each pole of the cell. telophase- ( the one complete set of chromosomes has reached each pole of the cell. the chromosomes relax into their extended state, the spindle disappears, and the nuclear membranes begin to reform) —— Cytokinesis- Usually simultaneously with the end of telophase, they cytoplasm is divided along the equator of the parent cell with each daughter cell* Plant cells and animal cells divide differently • both undergo cytokinesis • plants - cell plate formation • animal - cleavage • *Kinetochore are where the spindles attach* mitosis- what ever number you start with you end with. ** as long as the chromosomes are held together at the centromere they are one chromosomes— two chromatids held together at the centromere** ** late interphase: the chromosomes have been duplicated but remain intertwined together, enclosed within the nucleus** ** Replicate before you separate** ** chromosomes spend there time as a single strand*** when the cell is ready to replicate they form an X, when they are about to replicate they coil for protective means, this is the only time they can be seen under the microscope. Control of Cell division contact inhibition external controls on cell divisions growth promoters growth inhibitors cancer- out of control cell division contact division- when cells run into each other during division. kidney gets 1/5 of body’s book for chromatids separation chromosomes must align. - What ever you start with you will end with. - Every cell divides by mitosis and cytokinesis Sexual reproduction causes fusion between two cells. - Every sperm has 46 chromosomes - Every egg has 46 chromosomes How are you going to get half but still apply the same information? - 23 homologues pairs - chromosomes who share the same trait - Diploid- two at a time (homologues pairs) - Separate homologues chromosomes o Cutting the number and half but do not want to loose information, separating the homologues pair. More than one expression of the same trait. Meiosis : Forming of new organism Ploid = chromosome setup Sperm Male gamete (1N2, Haploid) + Egg Female gamete (1N, Haploid) zygote (2N, Diploid) Zygote- first restoration cell we divide from after fertilization Any cell after fertilization has to be Diploid. Any cell after sperm or egg has to be haploid Haploid is 1 – number stays the same Diploid is 2…. Multiply number by two How are sex cells produced? - Meiosis or Reduction Division (two rounds of division) 1) First meiotic division - homologous chromosomes separate 2) Second meiotic division- chromatids separate Synapsis- they find each other and coil so they move together Any synaptic event you have the chromatids stick together The two homologous chromosomes attach together to form tetrads Meiosis 1- synapsis happens, cut in half Meiosis 2- separation of chromatids and restoration of chromosome structure Sperms get equal cytokinesis hence multiple eggs Eggs- one cell gets almost all of the cytoplasm during division. Hence one egg is produced at end process. Animal life cycle Meiosis in humans is only for sperm and egg. Mitosis- what you start with you end with Meiosis- ends with half of what you started with (diploid to haploid) Fungus go through haploid cycles- spores Plant cycle- -p- cross pollinations f1- plants allowed to self fertilize f2- Summary of Mendel’s monohybrid experiments: 1)Two principles of inheritance Principle of segregation  Heredity via genes (diploid)  Two *alleles per adult gene (same expression of the same trait)  Segregated in reproductive cell (diploid to haploid) Principle of Dominance  One allele may be dominant over another when both allele types present in the same organism  Purple is dominant over white - Punnett square -half sperm get dominate other half gets recessive - the outside of the Punnett scale represents the possible outcomes 2) Genotypes and Phenotypes a. Genotypes = genetic make up b. Phenotype= actual expressed characteristic; product of gene and environment 3) More than one allele for same gene a. Homozygous= identical alleles for same gene b. Heterozygous= contrasting alleles for same gene *no such thing as heterozygous dominant


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.