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BIOS 1030 Week 2 notes

by: Hannah Arth

BIOS 1030 Week 2 notes BIOS 1030

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Hannah Arth

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About this Document

I did not include September 2nd's notes in this document because we started a new chapter. I will include them in Week 3's notes.
Human Biology I
Dr. Karen Mammone
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Arth on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOS 1030 at Ohio University taught by Dr. Karen Mammone in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Human Biology I in Biology at Ohio University.

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Date Created: 09/08/16
Week 2 Notes BIOS 1030 with Karen Mammone Chapter 2, August 29 - September 02 This chapter reviews atoms and macromolecules, what they are and what they consist of. Carbon atom:  In the nucleus there are 6 protons and 6 neutrons.  Outside of the nucleus, there are 6 electrons orbiting the nucleus.  Electrons are highly active during metabolism Ions:  Atoms which are charged  Charged atoms means that the atom has either lost or gained an electron. Molecule:  A group of atoms bonded together Chemical Bond:  A linkage between two atoms occurs because of the sharing or exchange of electrons pH:  The pH scale measures Hydrogen (H) ion concentration  H ions are acidic  OH ions have a pH of 7  OH ions are basic  pH is an important characteristic of water.  A change in one pH unit is a 10 fold change in H ions  Physiological pH of water is 7.4  Stomach acid has a pH of 2  Biological processes function correctly at specific pH 4 Macromolecules found in Living Organisms 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids  For each one know classes, subunits and what each molecule structure Carbohydrates:  Functions: energy, helps metabolism  Subunit: monosaccharaides  Classes:  Monosaccharides (energy use): 1 sugar, 1 ring, example: is glucose or fructose  Disaccharides: 2 sugars, 2 rings, example: sucrose  Polysaccharides (energy storage): many sugars, many rings, example: glycogen  Potatoes and plants contain starch as their carbohydrate source  Animals contain glycogen as their carbohydrate source  Simple Carb facts:  Made of 1 or 3 carbon rings  Quick source of energy  Sugars that are most likely to become fat  Found in table sugar, corn syrup, honey, maple syrup, jams/jellies, fruit drinks, soft drinks, candy, etc.  Complex Carb facts:  Long chain of carbon rings  Slower to digest  More likely to be high in fiber  Higher in vitamins and minerals  Steady supply of energy  Found in green veggies, whole grains and products made from them, starchy veggies such as potatoes/pumpkins, beans, and lentils  Can be unhealthy if they are refined, such as white sugar, white rice, etc.  Best choices of carbs:  Complex carbs (fiber and nutrients)  Whole and unprocessed  Plant sources  Look for the word "whole" on food labels  Avoid simple sugars such as corn syrup  About 3/4th of your daily calories should come from carbs Lipids  Functions:  Long-term energy storage  Subunit:  Usually fatty acids and glycerol  Classes:  Fats: 3 tails  Phospholipids: 2 tails  Saturated fats: all tails are straight, examples: lard, butter, etc. (solids)  Unsaturated fats: at least one tail is kinked, examples: oils (liquids)  Monounsaturated fats:  Help with good/bad cholesterol  Found in olives, olive oil, almonds, cashews, peanuts, sesame seeds, avocados  Polyunsaturated fats  Help lower bad cholesterol and contain omega-3 fatty acis which are good for the brain and immune system  Fats you want to limit or avoid  Saturated fats  Raises bad cholesterol and increases risk of heart disease  Found in meat, poultry, dairy products, cream, butter, whole or 2% milk, coconut and palm oils  Man made more saturated fats  Vegetable oil, margarine Phospholipids  Located in the membrane Proteins  Subunit: amino acid  20 amino acids make up proteins  Essential amino acids  Are not made in the body but are gotten from food.  Better protein choices  Beans  Nuts  Tofu  Fish  Chicken  Protein structure:  Primary  Amino acids  Secondary  Local folding in areas  Tertiary  Overall shape (helix)  Quaternary  Many proteins working as a single unit  All proteins have the first 3 levels  A change in one amino acid leads to sickle cell anemia Nucleic acids  DNA: the genetic material  RNA: carries out the instructions for DNA, helps make proteins  Sub unit:  Nucleotide  DNA: a double helix  Strands are held together by base pairing  A binds to T  C binds to G  RNA: single strand  ATP is a nucleotide  Flow of Genetic Info:  DNA uses transcription to turn into RNA in the nucleus then RNA uses translation in the cytoplams to turn into a proten  THogether this whole process is called Gene Expression  Gene  A portion of DNA that codes for a functional molecule.


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