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EBIO2100 Notes Week 2

by: Cara Macdonald

EBIO2100 Notes Week 2 EBIO 2100

Cara Macdonald
GPA 3.86

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About this Document

These notes cover the second week of lectures gone over in class, including the concepts of water movement, color and pressure.
Marine Biology
Timothy Mclean
Class Notes
Marine, Biology, Water, waves, pressure, color, temperature, movement, wind
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cara Macdonald on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 2100 at Tulane University taught by Timothy Mclean in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Marine Biology in Environmental Biology at Tulane University.

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Date Created: 09/08/16
Week 2: • Activity along mid-ocean ridges: o Deep ocean environments exist where ridges of tectonic plates exist § Newly made rock continuously being regenerated from magma underneath, solidified immediately by cold water § Geologic, seismic environments § “Chimneys” of rock form and release heat, smoke, toxic materials, etc. o Abundant oasis of life along black smokers: huge temperature gradient § How does life survive within such a temperature gradient? • The sea floor: summary o Earth exists as layers with differe nt densities and temperatures: § Core, mantle, crust (continental vs. oceanic) o Distribution of land masses and water masses has not always been what it is today § Theory of continental drift versus mechanism of plate tectonics § Lithospheric plates, ridges, trenches, subduction zones, o Sea floor: § Continental margins (active vs. passive) § Continental shelf, slope, rise and abyssal plain § Lithogenous sediments, biogenous sediments, abyssal clay Unit 2: Chemical and Physical features of seawater and the world oceans • Learning objectives: o Basic chemical and physical properties of water o Origins and influences upon ocean circulation o Major surface currents o How does life exist here • Water: o The biological medium on Earth, required by all l ife more than any other substance § Main reason Earth is habitable § Earth is only known planet with liquid water § Most cells are 70 -90% water o Water molecules: § 2 hydrogen atoms +1 oxygen atom • Covalently bonded: sharing electrons between them o Electrons tend to circulate around the oxygen nucleus more than hydrogen ions o High electronegativity causes hydrogen atoms to be slightly more positive o Oxygen atoms tend to be more negatively charged • Polar molecules: neg on one end, pos on the other o Allows to attract to other polarized molecules o Allows to form hydrogen bonds: weak bonds § Causes molecules to orient themselves from positive-negative § Constantly making and breaking bonds • Can exist in 3 different states (all can be found on Earth) o Ice: § Molecules orient themselves into a rigid formation o Liquid water § Salt added to water prevents formation of hydrogen bonds • Allows us to cool water below freezing point without freezing it o Results in supercool seawater o Gas: not much living here § Added heat energy breaks hydrogen bonds, turns gaseous • Presence of hydrogen bonds→ water can store lots of heat energy o Stabilizes temperatures § Water temp highs and lows moderate along coastline o “Universal solvent” (mostly): individual ions (+/ -) allow themselves to point in a hydration shell of water around atom § Eventually becomes dissolved • Seawater: has low viscosity, allowing quick movement within water § Compared to trying to swim through molasses o High transparency: allows us to see things suspended o High sound transmissibility: sound travels really fast in water, esp salt water (4x faster in water than air) o Freshwater vs seawater: § Seawater is more dense: has more stuff dissolved in it § Freshwater has more heat capacity § Seawater evaporates more slowl y § Seawater has lower freezing point (decreases with salinity increasing) o Salinity: the total mass of salt dissolved per mass of seawater § For 1 kg of seawater, >95% is just water molecules BUT • Chloride • Sodum • Magnesium • Sulfate • All these proportions stay constant § Typical salinity of seawater ~35g/kg (33 -36 g/kg) • Salinity may also be expressed as parts per thousand or psu (practical salinity units- measured using electricity o How fast does electricity travel between 2 electrodes?) § Rule of constant proportions: • No matter the salinity, the ratios of the constituents remains the same (within a range) o Sources of ions in saltwater: § Atmospheric deposition: volcanic action, burning of fossil fuels, etc. puts ions into the air, associate with rain particles, then bring them to the water • Acid rain: water high in sulfates brought from the atmosphere § Weathering: lithogenous sediments coming from continents are broken down into individual ions, which disperse into the water § Benthic seepage: water dissolves substances and brings them back to the surface • Water molecule: input is evaporation, residence time is thousands of years • Salt ion: input is formation of salt deposit/salt spray, accumulate over millions of years o Has the ocean always be en so salty? § NO: the accumulation has occurred over millions of years § Our cells contain just slightly less salt than the oceans do today, so we can infer that the first cells contained slightly less water than ours do today • Knowing that all life began in the ocean § Highest salinities in areas with more evaporation than precipitation • Freshwater inputs near coastlines drive salinity down § Density of seawater depends on: • Primarily temperature: as yo u warm things up, they tend to spread out and decrease density (colder temps → denser water) • Secondarily, salinity (more so in estuaries): higher salinity → denser seawater • Thirdly, pressure (only in the ocean): denser seawater at the bottom of the ocean than the top (higher pressure→ denser water) o How does temperature distribute across the surface of the oceans? § Higher at the equator, gradually cools down toward north or south pole § Surface: around air temperature (between 20 -25 degrees C) § Thermocline: shift of temperatures as depth changes • Average temperature in the ocean ~3.5 degrees C o How does salinity distribute? § Changes across the halocline from ~34.5 -35.5 • Pretty constant throughout the oceans o How does density distribute? § Density changes across pycno cline: increases with depth • Seawater also contains dissolved gases o Contain nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide o Per 1 kg seawater: § N2 ~0.014g § O2: 0.005g § CO2: 0.09g o Dissolve in the air, go back and forth between water and air o Oxygen: only slightly solubl e § Most stays in atmosphere or quickly returns to atmosphere § Anoxic zones: low concentration causes dead zones in organisms • Fish kills, death of invertebrates § Strongly influenced by biological activity • Bubbles up off of vegetation/photosynthetic sources o Carbon Dioxide: highly soluble § Reacts with water to create bicarbonate→ carbonic acid → carbon buildup at the bottom of the oceans • Oceans becoming acidified as a direct consequence of global warming • Acidic environment dissolves shells → organisms that r ely on shells die → predators die → travels up the food chain o Also contains natural parts of the Earth’s crust that dissolve into the ocean: § Silica § Lead § Iodine § Manganese o What color is the water? § Natural tendency to absorb colors on the ends of the colo r spectrum • Open ocean looks blue bc blue is the only color that can travel down and reflect back into our eyes § 65% visible light absorbed in the first meter § 200m= edge of photic zone • Below this zone, ocean becomes complete murky darkness § Photosynthetic organisms also absorb some light for photosynthesis • Don’t use colors immediately absorbed by the ocean like red or purple § Depth penetration of light varies depending upon the water conditions and location • Average 200m in open ocean • Much shallower penet ration in the coastlines 9/8/16 • Colors in water have different biological implications o Which wavelengths organisms can see, photosynthesise with • Water Pressure: o Increases with depth § The pressure at the surface is one atmosphere of pressure • For every 10m, add one more atmosphere § Organisms have evolved to live at different depths: • Some live 4,000m+ below surface o They have evolved and adapted to do so o If they were to come up, they would expand with decreasing pressure o CHANGE in pressure is more detrimental than pressure itself- most species cannot survive a significant pressure change § Ex: grouper has a swim bladder that will expand greatly when it comes to the top of water (deep sea fishing) • It may be unable to compress bladder back down and swim to the bottom § Other organisms don’t swim down bc they can’t withstand the increase in pressure o Most organisms don’t do a lot of swimming up and down • Sound in water: o Speed of sound travels much faster in seawater than in freshwater or the air (4x quicker) § Waves of sound travel faster between denser particles in salt water (waves travel from particle to particle) § It is difficult for us to determine the direction of sou nd § Organisms have special adaptations to be able to orient themselves with the direction of sound • Movement of water: ocean is always moving o Significant driver of circulation within the oceans: wind patterns § Blowing of wind across the surface of the wat er (may be winds blowing all the way across the world radiating onward) o Winds and currents are subject to the Coriolis Effect: § If the earth were not spinning and you traveled (on airplane) directly north to south, you would move in a straight line. However since the earth IS spinning beneath you, your pinpoint destination is moving → you must correct your course to compensate for Earth’s rotation § Wind/water deflected to the right in Northern hemisphere, left in Southern hemisphere o What generates the wind? § Differential heating of the earth from solar energy • Hot air rises up, tends to hold more water • As it starts to cool down, it releases held water and causes storms • Hot air cools and disperses from the equator, cool air comes toward equator to replace it and is heated up • Does NOT move North to South, moves in a general westerly direction § Cycle cells of wind circulation are convection currents: • 3 convection cells in Northern hemisphere, 3 in Southern o 6 different convection cells (each pair moving in opposite directions) § Wind blowing in a certain direction pushes surface current away from it in the same direction • Water is also subject to the Coriolis effect and deflects slightly away from the direction of the wind o The stronger the wind, the more effect on the water’s direction • Ekman spiral: opposition in direction from the coriolis effect versus air movement • Ekman transport: 90 degrees to the right of wherever the wind is blowing o Water tends to compro mise between these perpendicular angles and move at about 45 degrees angle o Vertical movement of water: § Usually, water will stratify: • Will layer by temperature: warm water at surface, cold water deeper, thermocline between • When strata are stable (from s table temperature) water will stay stratified • In temperate regions, warmer strata will cool and move downward o Decreased thermocline o Most oxygen exists at the top, life and nutrients at the bottom. Water moves to bring nutrients to the top and oxygen to the bottom • In the summer, stratification is stable and consistent • In the fall, stratification begins to break down as temperature decreases • In the winter, surface water becomes very cold and more dense, sinks to the bottom→ Downwelling (overturn): o Localized overturn: § Vertical mixing of all layers (nutrients go up, oxygen and carbon sink down) o Large-scale overturn: § Surface water sinks ‘ en masse’ without mixing (salinity and temperature do not change) • Water sinks as a unit down to the deeper depths of the oceans o Occurs off coast of Greenland, Antarctica • Thermohaline circulation: circulation driven by density differences (temp/salinity determine density of a water mass) • All this creates the Great Ocean Conveyer: o Like one big conveyer moving water all across the world o Water moving from the colder depths then heating, rising and moving as surface water across the oceans § Water moves itself around about every 4,000 years o As wind blows across t he surface of water, decrease in air pressure brings water up, then gravity pulls it back down § Causes WAVES: can measure wave frequency, length, force, height, etc. § Wind energy creates energy in the water that moves it up and down • Causes a slight circul ation as wind comes up one side of the wave and down the other side • Higher waves→ energy transferred deeper down into water § Size of a wave is directly related to windspeed itself: • The FASTER the wind or the LONGER the wind has been blowing is directly related to wave size • Wind fetch: the longer the wind has been blowing gives it more distance to interact with the water o Expect greater rates of erosion at the top where fetch is higher and closer to wind


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