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AY 101 - Lecture Sept 8 Notes

by: Savannah L

AY 101 - Lecture Sept 8 Notes AY 101

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Astronomy > AY 101 > AY 101 Lecture Sept 8 Notes
Savannah L

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Physics of Orbit Thursday, September 8, 2016
AY 101 - Intro to Astronomy - Jeremy Bailin
Jeremy Bailin
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah L on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jeremy Bailin in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see AY 101 - Intro to Astronomy - Jeremy Bailin in Astronomy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/08/16
LECTURE – THURSDAY SEPT 8 PHYSICS OF ORBITS Force- causes acceleration, a push/pull that modifies an object’s motion (ex. Gravity, friction, rotation of earth, tension, electromagnetism) TYPES  Gravity- matter attracts other matter (attraction depends on mass)  Electromagnetism- +/- electrical charges (opposite charges attract, like charges repel)  Strong Nuclear Force- very short-range force that keeps particles in the nucleus of an atom together  Weak Nuclear Force- very short-range force responsible for radioactive decay of nuclei When atoms get close: 1. The – electrons of an atom repel the – electrons of the neighboring atom (ex: the electrons in the floor repel the electrons in my shoes) 2. The + nucleus of one atom attracts the – electrons of neighboring atom (ex: the atoms in the ball attract the other atoms in the ball)  Attractive force of gravity is responsible for pulling things toward earth  Attractive and repulsive forces of electromagnetism are responsible for - Holding solids together - One object pushing on another (holding it up) - Friction - Chemical reactions - Air resistance - Everything else  Gravity is very weak, can only dominate very large objects  Newton’s Second Law: when a force (F) acts on a mass (m) it produces an acceleration (a) o a = F/m OR F = ma  for a given mass, more force = more acceleration  for a given force, more mass = less acceleration  no force = uniform motion (Newton’s first law) Motion- speed, velocity, acceleration  Speed- how fast are you going?  Velocity- speed and direction  Acceleration- change in velocity o NOTE: if you are running in a straight line going 4mph, and then turn right, still going 4mph, you ARE considered accelerating because you are changing direction even though you are not changing speed Net Force- total after balancing opposite forces  acceleration results from net force; if there is no acceleration, all forces must be balanced Gravity: 2 Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation- Fg = G(M M )/d 1 2  forces are equal and opposite  force is proportional to mass  force follows inverse square law with distance Conservation of Angular Momentum- tendency for an object to go around (orbit or rotate) Angular Momentum = mass x velocity x radius (only way to change is to give or take from someone else, aka Kepler’s second law)


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