Geology Week 2
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Thedford on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 20841 at Fort Lewis College taught by Allie Jackson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Geol 113-2 in Geology at Fort Lewis College.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Geology Week 2 The birth of Earth The Big Bang- All matter was compressed into a single point Exploded 13.7 GA and continues to expand Hydrogen and Helium were the first elements Nucleosynthesis formed the lightest elements Stellar nucleosynthesis and supernovae formed the heavier elements Because the universe seems to be expanding at an increasing rate, eventually, observers will not be able to see any other galaxies from Earth or any other spot in the Milky .ay if the Universe was expanding today therefore the Universe was cooling. If it’s cooling today, then it must have been hotter in the past. Extrapolating backwards, he recognized that there once was a time period where it was too hot for neutral atoms to form, and then a period before that where it was too hot for even atomic nuclei to forms. The Solar System- The sun contains 99.8% of all mass Planets- Must orbit a star Are roughly spherical Clear it’s neighborhood of all objects (gravitational pull) errestrial planets- 4 most interior (mercury, Venus, earth, mars) Gas giant planets- 4 most exterior (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune) Objects- Moons- Formed in 4.53 GA when a mars sized planetoid collided with earth Asteroids Dwarf planets Comets Earth- Formed in the big bang Atmosphere developed from volcanic gases When the earth became cool enough moisture condensed and accumulated making oceans Magnetic field- Earth is like a giant Dipolar magnet With north and south ends Force grows weaker with distance Will flip poles periodically Atmosphere- 78% Nitrogen 21& oxygen trace gases less than 1% Atmosphere is denser closer to earth causing less pressure as you increase in elevation Earth’s components- Atmosphere-Gas Hydrosphere-Water Cryosphere-Ice and snow Biosphere-Life Lithosphere- solid earth Solid Earth- 91.2% of earth is Iron(Fe) 32.1% Oxygen (O) 30.1% Silicon (Si) 15.1% Magnesium (Mg) 13.9% Earth’s Materials- Organic Compounds o (carbon containing compounds) Minerals o (crystalline Solids) Glasses o (non crystalline solid) Rocks o (Aggregate of minerals) Igneous Metamorphic Sedimentary Earth’s Internal structure- Differentiation- Density and composition sorting early in earth’s history as it cooled from its original molten state. (separation of core from rock) Geothermal gradient-The rate temperature changes with depth Layers Crust- o Thin outermost “skin” which thickness varies from 7-70 km o Continental crust is thicker than oceanic o Oceanic crust is denser than continental Lithosphere Asthenosphere Mantle- o Solid rock o Largest earth layer o Upper mantle is primarily peridotite o Undergoes slow convection Core- o Iron- Rich sphere with a radius of 3,471 km Outer (liquid) – Iron, Nickel, and Sulfur Inner (solid)- Iron, and Nickel o Layers are based on seismic waves o But can also layer based on rock strength (such as the lithosphere and asthenosphere Seismic waves P waves S waves (can’t travel through liquid) add chart here waves refract or reflect when boundaries are encountered
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