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PSY Ch.4 Notes part 1

by: merlec16

PSY Ch.4 Notes part 1 PSY 151

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Notes taken from the textbook and the slides for the first part of human development in chapter 4.
Introductory Psychology
Ashley L. Heffner
Class Notes
Psychology, textbook, Homework, development, Infancy
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by merlec16 on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 151 at Wake Forest University taught by Ashley L. Heffner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.

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Date Created: 09/08/16
PSY Ch. 4 Human Development Notes: Lecture #1 Physical Development  Infancy, Childhood, Adolescence Stages of Prenatal Development  Germinal Period: 0-2 Weeks o Fusion of the nuclei of a sperm and ovum  Embryonic Period: 2-8 Weeks o Vulnerable stage, rapid cell division o Embryo is dependent for nutrition and oxygen on the placenta o Within 6-thweeks the hear begins to beat  Fetal Period: 9 Week – birth o Rapid growth in last 3 months o Organism becomes known as a fetus o All human organs have formed How Does the Unborn Embryo Become a Newborn?  Conception- fusion of the nuclei of a sperm and ovum (fertilization)  Zygote- the fused nuclei of a sperm and ovum Embryo and Fetus Face Challenges  Congenital malformations- physical defects or abnormalities present at birth  Teratogens- any harmful substance, bacteria, virus that can be transferred through the placenta to a developing mammalian organism o Cigarettes and alcohol  Alcohol is more dangerous because it crosses the placental barrier easily o One of the leading causes of preventable congenital disorders and malformations, intellectual disability, and developmental disorders o Fetal-alcohol syndrome- congenital disorder resulting from prenatal maternal alcohol use The “Crack Baby”: Crackpot Idea?  Babies born to crack-addicted mothers appeared to have suffered severe birth defects or lasting developmental damage  Babies were reported to shriek, tremble, and be incapable of bonding with anyone  Born with a life of misery and addicted to cocaine  Problem: third confounding variables o Some mothers who smoked crack while pregnant also consumed alcohol and smoked cigarettes o Crack was a characteristic of poor, inner-city communicates with a lack of access to proper nutrition, prenatal care and education about pregnancy health  Came to discovery that cocaine did not cause birth defects  Babes of cocaine-using mothers are not born addicted to cocaine How Does the Infant Become a Child?  Infancy- the developmental stage beginning at birth to about age 1 Brain Development is Rapid  Reaches 50% of adult size by 6 months  By age 6 your brain reaches 90% of its adult size Synaptic Pruning and Critical Periods  Synaptic pruning- neurological process that “weeds out” the number of seldom-used brain neurons to allow those that are being used frequently to be maintained efficiently  Plasticity is very evident in infancy  Critical periods- “windows of opportunity” a stage in development when the brain displays increases sensitivity to certain types of stimuli, and will develop in specific ways if these stimuli are encountered o Certain skills must be acquired during critical periods if they are to be acquired at all The Newborn Infant Is Already Skilled  Reflexes- an innate, involuntary neuromuscular, response to stimuli  Survival reflexes- innate involuntary neuromuscular response that serves a functional purpose and likely evolved because it assisted the organism in survival or reproduction  Newborn infants can know their mothers face within hours of birth  Know their own mothers voice *Growth: Toddlerhood to Adolescence  Myelination o White matter  Adolescent Brain o Frontal lobe o Limbic system  Adolescence and Puberty *Language Skill Development Learning Objectives: 1. What are some milestones in language development? 2. How do we learn language? Slide Notes  Nature v. Nurture – Language?? o Chomsky v. Skinner o Language Acquisition Device  Babies – use phenomes appropriate for many languages, but soon narrow these down o By 3-5 weeks: o By 4-6 months: o By 6-18 months: more like adult speech  1 year -  3 years of age – Child Speak  Understand before than can produce language  Telegraphic speech o About 2 years of age o Simple two-word sentences o Word order almost always correct  Sophisticated grammar skills in preschool o Preschoolers tend to overgeneralize rules  Example: goed, foots  Grammatical knowledge fine-tunes from age 3 to about 6 or 7 Learning Check…  Example of: o Teratogen?  What perceptual skills to infants have? o What does visual cliff measure?  At what age do babies o Crawl? o Walk? o If a child id not walking y 18 months would you be concerned? o First words? o Two words?  If a child is not speaking by 2 years of age would you be concerned?


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