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by: Lydia Trick


Lydia Trick
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

Week 3 Notes
Biological Anthropology
Jeremy Koster
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lydia Trick on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH1003 at University of Cincinnati taught by Jeremy Koster in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.


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Date Created: 09/08/16
BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 8/22 ● Stabilizing selection 8/25 ● uniformitarianism : erosion shaping geological areas ● Similarities between island and continent flora and fauna ● Darwin pointed out that we do not have fossil evidence of all intermediate species through time ○ Most organisms that die do not end up as fossils 8/30 ● Mendelian genetics ○ Problem with blending model: because an intermediate coat color produced from 2 extreme phenotypic parents would ultimately weed out those extreme phenotypic colors of the parents, but they still reoccurr generation after generation ● Gene = allele: a segment of a chromosome that affects phenotype and segregates independently ○ Genes are sections on the chromosomes ● Every time a cell divides, chromosomes make copies of themselves ● No. of chromosomes is not a good measure of the complexity of an organism ● There is always constant cell division taking place - growth and repair ● A genotype is a combination of alleles at a locus ○ 3 possible: YY, Yy, yy ● Recessive allele will only be expressed if the individual is homozygous for the recessive allele ○ Blue eyes are a recessive trait ○ The blue-eyed allele is still expressed though it is recessive. The abundance of melanin of brown-eyed allele masks the blue pigmentation of blue-eyed allele ● Males can only give X chromosome to daughters, mothers give X to daughters and sons ● Most humans are trichromats ○ Who can see color at short, middle and long wavelengths ○ Mutations in opsin genes can inactivate one or more photoreceptor which leads to this inability to distinguish lights of different wavelengths 9/6 ● Having certain no. of genes doesn’t predict complexity ● Evolution does not require the addition of genes ○ Evolution is the existence of preliminary genes and modification of them ● Replication ○ DNA polymerase adds to strand ● {some} genes make proteins - but not all ● 64 combinations 9/8 ● Mutations exist in asexual organisms too ● But when when they do, cloned organisms will pass on their mutations to 100% of offspring ● Sexual reproduction is beneficial in this aspect because we have variety and a higher probability of surviving ● Genetic drift leads to founder effects ○ An allelic frequency in a smaller population can differ from the bigger population ● Conservationists keep as much genetic data as possible ○ Ex: when the world only has a few cheetahs left, conservationists do their best to keep variation and diversity present ● Gene flow increases variation within a population, but decreases variation between them ● Autosomal recessive disorder - homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive affected individuals will produce heterozygous carriers


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