Basic Chemistry in Functional Biology
Basic Chemistry in Functional Biology 1330
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zaida Gomez on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1330 at Texas State University taught by Aglaia Chandler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Functional biology in Life and Physical Sciences at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Basic Chemistry: Inorganic Molecules overview 1. Matter, mass, weight, energy 2. Elements atoms, atoms, atomic structure 3. Periodic table 4. Molecules, compounds & chemical bonds 5. Isotopes 6. Chemical reactions 7. Water, acids, bases and salts 8. pH scale and buffers Chemistry Definition Chemistry- studies matter and its interactions Matter- anything that takes up space and has mass Mass-physical property that determines the weight of an object in Earth’s gravitational field States of Matter- solid, liquid, gas Elements- simplest form of matter - can’t be broken apart by normal means - 92 occur on Earth naturally States of Matter Matter- anything that takes up space and has mass, composed of chemical elements, 3 states Gases-take the shape and volume of their container and can be compressed to forms of liquids Liquids-take the shape of their container, and have their own volume Solids- definite shape and volume Classification of Matter Element: Composed of ONE type of atom (atoms have same # of protons) Molecule: Composed of 2 or more atoms joined by chemical bonds Compound: Composed of 2 or more elements joined by chemical bonds Mixture: Combination of 2 or more substances that don’t chemically bond (sugar mixed w/ salt) Elements - If a pure substance can’t be decomposed into something else - 114 known elements, 92 naturally occurring - each as unique symbol - only about 25 of elements are essential for life - carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen make up 96% of living matter (the remaining is mostly calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur) Trace Elements- required by an organism in minute quantities Chemical Composition of Biomolecules Mass of cells: Oxygen- 63% Hydrogen- 25.2% Carbon- 9.5% Nitrogen- 1.4% Atoms - smallest particles that retain properties of an element - have mass (can’t be physically or chemically broken) - Subatomic Particles: Protons (+), Electrons (-), Neutrons (no charge) Atomic number- number of protons (same as electrons) (all atoms of element have same atomic number) Mass Number- number of protons + number of neutrons Isotopes- vary in mass number - Atoms of an element with different numbers of neutrons (different mass #’s) - Same # of protons Radioisotopes unstable nucleus that emits energy and particles (unstable isotope) Radioactive Decay- transforms radioisotopes into a different element (used to estimate age of fossils) (occurs at a fixed rate) Tracer- substance with a radioisotope attached to it - emissions with the tracer can be detected with special devices - following their movement helps many areas of biology Radioisotopes in Medicine Positron-Emission Tomography (PET)- uses radioisotopes to form images of body tissues PROCEDURE 1. Patient is injected with tracer and put through a PET scanner 2. Body cells absorb tracer at different rates 3. Scanner detects radiation caused by energy from decay of the radioisotope, and radiation then forms an image 4. Image can reveal variations and some abnormalities in metabolic activity Other Uses of Radioisotopes - Drive artificial pacemakers - Radiation Therapy (can destroy cells and be used to kill small cancers) Atoms Interactions The number and arrangement of their electrons determines whether atoms will interact Electrons 1. negative charge 2. Repel each another 3. Attracted to protons in nucleus 4. electron shells around the nucleus 5. Move in orbitals (volumes of space that surround the nucleus Orbitals - Can have up to 2 electrons - Each atom differs in the # of occupied orbitals - Orbitals closest to the nucleus have lower energy (filled first) - Orbitals with same distance from nucleus contain electrons of the same energy level (shell) - Rule of Eights Shell Model 1. First Shell Lowest energy Holds 1 orbital with 2 electrons max 2. Second Shell 4 orbitals hold up to 8 electrons 3. Third Shell 9 orbitals hold up to 18 electrons
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