Reading Notes-week 2
Reading Notes-week 2 SOC 3150
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeleine Martin on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 3150 at University of Colorado Colorado Springs taught by Jeff Montez de Oca in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Modern Sociological Theory in Sociology at University of Colorado Colorado Springs.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Reading NotesWeek 1 Madeleine Martin Of the Natural Condition and the CommonwealthThomas Hobbes 1. Of the Natural Condition of Mankind, as concerning their Felicity and Misery. 1.1. Nature makes men equal. 1.2. The causes of problems: Competition, Diffidence, and Glory. 1.3. They do these because they want: Gain, Safety, and Reputation. 1.4. Need someone far more powerful to keep them from fighting one another. Absolute monarchy. 1.5. Where there is no common power, there is no law; where no law, no injustice. 2. Of the first and second Natural Laws 2.1. Seek peace and follow it. 2.2. Defend yourself by any means necessary. 2.3. Do for others what you need them to do for you. 3. Of the Causes, Generation, and Definition of a Commonwealth. 3.1. Sovereign power. 3.2. Anyone not Sovereign is a Subject. 4. Of the Rights of Sovereigns by Institution 4.1. Held in check by covenants. 4.2. System only works because people buy into it. Of the Social ContractJean Jacques Rousseau 1. The First Societies 1.1. Man is born free and then becomes chained. 1.2. Families represent a small scale society, in which the father is the ruler who loves his people and treats them with respect and allows them independence, he lets them remain united voluntarily. 2. The Right of the Strongest 2.1. The strongest is not strong enough to always be master, unless he transforms his strength into right and obedience into duty. 2.2. Force does not create right. 3. Slavery 3.1. Men need liberty. 3.2. Slave and Right contradict one another. 4. That We Must Always Go Back to a First Convention 4.1. The vote of each man is important, and to ignore one man’s vote for the sake of ten men’s votes would be unjust. 5. The Social Compact 5.1. Men need to look out for the best interest of the group while still keeping their best interest at heart. 5.2. Each member acts as part of a whole. 6. The Sovereign 6.1. A man is bound to the individuals as a member of the Sovereign. 1 6.2. A man will be compelled to act by the whole body. 7. The Civil State 7.1. In losing: natural liberty and an unlimited right to everything and succeeds in getting. You gain: civil liberty and a proprietorship of all he possesses. 7.2. A man becomes the master of himself. 8. Real Property 8.1. Advocate for the greater good 8.2. Men are inherently well meaning. 8.3. Men become equal by convention and legal right. What is EnlightenmentImmanuel Kant 1. Enlightenment is man leaving his selfcaused immaturity. 1.1. Learning to think for one’s self. 1.2. Have the courage to use your own intelligence. 2. In remaining unenlightened we allow others to control us and act as our guardians. 3. Nearly impossible for a public to enlighten itself. 3.1. Dangerous to plant prejudices because they come back to hurt those who planted them. 3.2. A public can only reach enlightenment slowly and through revolution. 3.3. Prejudices ere as the leaders of the blind, unblinking mass. 4. Enlightenment stems from freedom. 4.1. Man must make public sue of his reason in all matters. 4.2. Question everything around you. 4.3. Obey if you must, but take notes and question as you do so. 5. Primarily pertains to mattes of Religion. 5.1. Man must become more than machine. The Wealth of NationsAdam Smith 1. Of the Division of Labor 1.1. Effects of the Division of Labor: Skill, dexterity, and judgement. 1.2. Turns men into machines. Increases productivity and causes more specialization. Parts to whole. 1.3. Increase in quantity of work. 1.4. Three circumstances: 1.4.1. Increase in dexterity in each worker. 1.4.2. Time saving usually lost from one species of work to another. 1.4.3. Invention of machines that allow one man to do the work of many. 1.5. Consequently, the division of labor encourages a man’s attention to turn to one very simple object. Workers find ways to improve their role and save themselves some labor, 2. Of the Principle Which Gives Occasion to the Division of Labor 2.1. Division of Labor stems from man’s propensity to truck, barter, and exchange one thing for another. 2.2. Give when they want, get what you want. 2.3. Difference of talents is subtle at a young age, but grows more prevalent throughout time. 2 2.4. Division of labor helps men get what they want/need in an easier manner because there I someone specialized in that field. 3. Of Restraints upon the Importation from Foreign Countries of Such Goods as Can Be Produced at Home 3.1. Workers are creating domestic goods and whatever rate they can, however that may not be enough to allow them to keep up with domestic demand. 3.2. If it is cheaper coming from somewhere else, buy it with something from our own industry. 3.3. Do everything so that you maintain the advantage. 3
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