Class Notes 9/1, 9/6
Class Notes 9/1, 9/6 AAH 1010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Notetaker on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AAH 1010 at Clemson University taught by Beth A. Lauritis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Survey of Art and Architectural History I in Arts and Humanities at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Class Notes continue MesoPers 9.1.16 Statuettes of two worshippers, 2700 BCE, Sumerian- Surrogate for a wealthy donor. Eternal watchfulness for the gods. The patron god of that particular city-state receives their offering. The figures are simplified and holding a votive vessel. Freestanding sculpture in the round. Stele- stone slab commemorating a historical event, usually a battle. Can function as propaganda War side of the Standard of Ur, from Tomb 779, Royal Cemetery, Ur, c 2600 BCE, Iraq, Wood inlaid with shells, lapis lazuli, and red limestone- Many costly objects and skeletal remains found in this tomb suggesting a wealthy colony and belief of afterlife. Shows a narrative but no inscription. Akkadian- 2332-2150 BCE Sargon- name of the first great conqueror in history. Head of Akkadian ruler, Iraq, c. 2250-2200 BCE, Akkadian- The hair is stylized and has a lot of attention. Previously had jewel in the eyes, but were gouged out and the beard broken off. Akkadian people were loyal to king rather than just individual city-state. Considered empire. Absolute monarchy. Victory stele of Naram-Sin, Susa Iran, 2254-2218, Pink sandstone, Akkadian: King is large and ascended a mountain above all the onlookers. His horned helmet of divinity suggests his great power and divinity. He is victorious, leading his soldiers. He is holding weapons showing he was active in battle. Neo-Sumerian- 2150-2000 BCE Later culture that conquers the Akkadians. Ruled by kings of Ur; called the Third Dynasty of Ur. Seated statue of Gudea holding temple plan, Iraq, c 2100 BCE: Peaceful ruler. Seen seated more similar to a votive, like modest, humble figure. Neo-Sumerian culture don’t see the king as divine but submissive to gods. Gudea holding an overflowing water jar, from temple of Geshtinanna, Girsu, Iraq, c 2100 BCE: Does not have beard, unlike early Sumerian. Simplified figured, similar to Eshnunna statuettes in its large eye and simple form and garment. Babylonian- 1800-1600 BCE Hammurabi has first coded laws Stele with law code of Hammurabi, Susa, Iran, c 1780 BCE, Babylonian: King is seated on higher platform similar to ziggurat. Suggests that the gods favor his actions. Society regulated by law is huge shift. Assyrian & Neo-Babylonian- 900-539 BCE (Continuing on 9/6/16) Assyrians are more defensive and organizes city-states Lion Gate, Hattusa, Turkey, c 1400 BCE- Lions are protecting the entrance. Shows that it’s a city-state that would need a lot of protection. Monuments and structures do not die with the culture. We analyze these subjective to our own belief Lamassu, limestone (winged, human-headed bull) c 720-705 BCE, Assyrian- Shows five legs. The front is standing, while the side shows the beast in motion. Shows himself in crown. Shows great detail in the hair. Very stylized. The monsters were constructed to deter the king’s enemies Ashurnasirpal II with attendants and soldier from the northwest palace of Ashurnasirpal II at Kalhu, c 875-860 BCE, glazed brick, Assyrian- Depicts king and attendants paying homage to the gods. The king is the tallest and all the garments are detailed and paid special attention. Assyrian archers pursuing enemies, relief from Northwest palace of Ashurnasirpal II, Kalhu, c 875-860 BCE, Gypsum- This relief depicts victory as enemies swim the Euphrates River. Three enemies are shown; one has an arrow in his back, while the other two inflate animal skins hoping to float. The enemies are swimming towards their soldiers in a fort. The relief is a condensed view of the landscape and the figures are enlarged for clarity. Ahurbanipal hunting lions, relief from North palace of Ahurbanipal, c. 645-640 BCE, Gypsum, Assyrian- For the king’s safety, the hunt is not in a wild environment. The hunt is in an arena where the lions are released and charge the king on his chariot who is protected by his attendants. Behind them is a trail of dead lions covered in arrows. The artist created great detail in the hair and the lions’ muscles and faces. Ishtar Gate, Babylon, c 575 BCE, glazed brick, Neo-Babylonia- Covered in composite animals, represents control over animal. Leads to Temple of Marduk. Babylon was made of mud bricks and important monuments were glazed with this blue color. Achaemenid & Sasanian c. 538-330 BCE and 224-636 CE Achaemenids conquered Babylon and Egypt. Ends with the death of Darius III in 330 BCE by Alexander the Great. Achaemenid people became Nomadic.- Persepolis, Iran, c. 521-465 BCE, Achaemenid- Enter through the Gate of All Lands, meaning the combination of all people of the Persian Empire. All different peoples put together to create the structure. Looks to bring together different peoples but really, it’s the use of power of the empire. Greek people used to carve- Greek influence seen in the column work. Alexander the Great destroyed the construction to symbolize the end of the Persian Empire. Columns with animal protomes, from apadana of the palace, Persepolis, c. 521-465 BCE- The columns are almost 64’ tall. Fierce composite animals are attached to the capital as if the Persian king captured the beasts to hold up the roof of the palace. The protomes were shaped to hold the cedar beams. Apadana- royal audience hall Protome- front of animal showing forelegs, head and body Frieze- a band of material often in sculpted form. Typically figures set on ground line pushed to the front of the picture plane, very flat and horizontal. Processional frieze on the terrace of the apadana, Persepolis, c. 521-465 BCE, Limestone, 8’4”- Many different conquered cultures in their native garb walking together in the processional. They appear at peace and agreement which is untrue, they are not a united people. All bringing a gift from their region to give to the king. The folds of the fabric and the rounded forms suggest a Greek influence on the Achaemenid style. Sasanian Empire Sasanians traced themselves from Achaemenid kings, forced the Romans out of Asia with king Artraxerxes. Palace of Shapur I, c. 250, Sasanian- Featured a monumental iwan and vault that was 100’ high. Blind arcades are used for aesthetic purposes and cover the left side of the iwan. Iwan- brick audience hall
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