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Biology, Week 1 Notes

by: Bailey Wilhoit

Biology, Week 1 Notes Biology 101

Bailey Wilhoit

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About this Document

These notes cover chapters 1 and 2.
Biological Principles I
Dr. Czako
Class Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Wilhoit on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 101 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by Dr. Czako in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Biological Principles I in Science at University of South Carolina - Columbia.


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Date Created: 09/08/16
Biology Lecture Notes  Chapter 1, Week 1  1.1 Themes of Biology  ● Life is recognized by what living things do and characteristics of cells  ○ Characteristics of all Living things:  ■ Order­ complex organized structure based on Carbon  ■ Reproduction­ passing down traits  ■ Growth and Development  ■ Energy Processing­take in materials from environment and convert them  to other things  ■ Regulation­ maintain homeostasis (internal temperature, blood pressure,  etc)  ■ Response to environment  ■ Evolutionary adaptations­ surviving change  ● Cell Theory: all living things are composed of cells, and all existing cells came from  preexisting cells  ● Organization  ○ Levels of Organization (From biggest to smallest)  ■ Biosphere­ Earth  ■ Ecosystems­ all living/nonliving things in a particular area  ● Ex: arctic tundra, desert, deciduous forest  ■ Communities­ organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem  ● Ex: in a forest, all the types of trees and animals form communities  ● Each form of life is known as a different species  ■ Populations­ all individuals of a particular species  ● Ex: all of the deer living in a particular forest  ■ Organisms­ each individual living thing is called an organism  ■ Organs and Organ Systems­ each organ in an organism has a function,  and makes up a larger organ system to help the organism survive  ● Ex: lungs in an animal are an organ. Lungs, combined with the  trachea, capillaries, bronchi, etc make up the Respiratory system  that allow the animal to breathe.   ■ Tissues­ group of cells that work together to perform a specific function  ● Ex: The skin tissue of the epidermis allow for waterproofing of the  entire body  ■ Cells­ performs all the functions of life; building blocks of life  ■ Organelles­ functional components of cells  ● Ex: mitochondria  ■ Molecules­chemical structure of two or more atoms  ● Information  ● Energy and Matter  ● Interactions  ● Evolution  Emergent Properties  ● Result from arrangement and interaction of parts in an ecosystem  Reductionism:  ● Breaking down complex systems into simpler parts that are easier to understand and  study  Structure and Function:  ● The lowest level of organization that can perform activities necessary for life is the cell  ● Cells are enclosed in a membrane that allows materials to pass through from the  environment  ○ Two types of cells:  ■ Prokaryotic: simple, no nucleus   ■ Eukaryotic: complex, nucleus, organelles  Expression and Transmission of Genetic Information  ● Cells contain chromosomes that contain genetic material (DNA)  ● Genes encode information for building molecules  ● DNA controls development and maintenance of organism  ○ Two long strands in a double helix  ● Each chain of DNA is made up of 4 kinds of chemical building blocks (called nucleotides­  A, G, T, C)  ● DNA is transcribed into RNA that is then turned into protein  ● Gene expression: converting information from gene to cellular product  ● Genes are units of inheritance  Genomics: large scale analysis of DNA sequence  ● An organism’s genome is it’s entire set of genetic instructions  ● Genomics is the study of certain sets of genomes within species  ● Proteomics is the study of whole sets of genome proteins  Life requires Transfer and Transformation of Energy and Matter  ● Energy from the sun and its transformation make all life possible   ● When organisms use energy to perform work, some of it is lost as heat  ● Energy usually enter ecosystem as light and leaves as heat  Interactions are Important  ● Organisms interact continuously with environment and the environment is thereby  affected by these interactions  ● Molecules  ○ Interactions between lower level organization groups are crucial for smooth  operations  ○ Cells coordinate various chemical pathways through a mechanism called  feedback  ■ In feedback regulation the product of the process regulates the process  ● Most commonly, it is negative­ the product reduces the initial  stimuli  ● Positive feedback: end product speeds up its own production  ○ Ex: blood clotting. When platelets begin clotting to heal a  wound, the positive feedback calls for increased production  of platelets  Evolution (Core theme of Biology)  ● Scientific explanation for unity and diversity  ● Grouping Species  ○ Taxonomy: names and classifies species into groups  ○ Three Domains of Life  ■ Archaea (prokaryotes)  ■ Bacteria (prokaryotes)  ■ Eukarya (eukaryotes)  ● Three molecular kingdoms  ○ Plants­ autotrophic (produce their own food)  ○ Fungi­ absorb nutrients  ○ Animals­ ingest food   ● Charles Darwin and Natural Selection  ○ Two main points:  ■ Species show evidence of “descendants with modification”  ■ “Natural Selection”  ○ On the Galapagos Darwin observed:  ■ Individuals in a population can have many traits, many inheritable  ■ More offspring are produced than survive, which shows competition for  resources  ■ Over time the organisms with undesirable traits will die out because they  don't reproduce or they are easily preyed upon  ■ Eventually the dominant trait will become the only trait  ○ Darwin proposed that Natural Selection can produce multiple descendant species  from one ancestral species  Scientists make observations and form hypothesis  ● Inquiry: search for information or explanations of natural phenomena  ● Inductive reasoning: repeating specific observations that lead to generalizations  ● Deductive reasoning: uses general premises to make predictions  ● Hypotheses must be testable and falsifiable  ● Theory: broader in scope that hypothesis; general; can lead to new hypotheses;  supported by large body of evidence  Biology Lecture and Textbook Notes  Chapter 2, Week 1    Matter Consists of Chemical Elements and in Combination called Compounds  ● Matter: anything that has mass and takes up space  ● Element: substance that cannot be broken down  ○ About 20­25% of 92 elements are essential to life  ○ Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and hydrogen compose 96% of all living matter  ○ Trace elements are elements required for life in minute quantities (Iodine)  ● Compound: substance that can be broken down into simpler materials  Element’s Properties Depend on Its Atomic Structure  ● Atoms are the smallest unit of matter  ● Subatomic particles  ○ Electrons (negative charge)  ○ Protons (positive charge)  ○ Neutrons (no charge)  ● Protons and neutrons account for an element’s atomic mass and their masses are  almost identical  ● Electrons form a cloud around the nucleus (called the electron cloud)  ● Atomic number= number of protons  ● Mass number= protons + neutrons  ● Atomic mass= atom’s total mass  Isotopes  ● Atoms that have the same element but different numbers of neutrons  ● Radioactive isotopes decay, giving off energy  ○ Used as diagnostic tools in medicine  ● Radioactive dating  ○ “Parent” isotope decays to “daughter” at a fixed rate (half life)  ○ Scientists measure how many half lives pass  Energy Levels of Electrons  ● Energy is the capacity to change  ● Potential energy: energy an object has based on location and structure  ○ Electrons state of potential energy mostly determined by electrons in electron  shell  ● Valence electrons are in the outermost shell  ○ These are what determine the behavior of the atom  ● Orbitals are spaces where electrons are found  Formation and Function of Molecules Depend on Chemical Bonding  ● Atoms with incomplete valence shells can share electrons with other atoms  ● These interactions usually lead to chemical bonds  ● When atoms share valence electrons it is called a covalent bond  ● A molecule is two or more atoms held by covalent bonds  ○ Single bond: sharing of one pair of valence electrons  ○ Double bond: sharing of two pairs of valence electrons  ○ Structural formula:­​  ○ Molecular formulas: 2  ○ Valence is also known as bonding capacity  ● Electronegativity is the atom’s attraction for electrons in covalent bonds  ○ The more electronegative an atom is, the more force is has to pull electrons  closer  ● Nonpolar covalent bonds are when atoms share electrons equally  ● Polar covalent bonds are when when atom is more electronegative, therefore they share  the electrons unequally  ● Ionic Bonds  ○ Ions are atoms that gain/lose electrons, and are therefore charged  ○ Cations are positively charged and anions are negatively charged  ○ Ionic bonds are electrostatic attractions between anions and cations  ○ Compounds formed by ionic bonds are called ionic compounds or salts  ● Weak Chemical Bonds  ○ Easily reversible  ○ Hydrogen bonds (when hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an electronegative  atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom)  ○ Van der Waals interactions: attractions between molecules that are close  together because of charge  ○ Co­ordinate bonds: both electrons come from same atom  ○ Hydrophilic: water loving  ○ Hydrophobic: water fearing  ● Molecular Shape and Function  ○ Shape is determined by positions of atoms in orbitals and is important to function  ○ Determines how biological molecules specifically recognize and respond to one  another  Chemical Reactions Make and Break Chemical Bonds  ● Reactants are the starting molecules of reactions  ● Products are the ending molecules  ● All chemical reactions are reversible  ● Chemical equilibrium: reached when forward and reverse reactions occur simultaneously   


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