PPD 225 NOTES WEEK 3
PPD 225 NOTES WEEK 3 PPD 225
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isaac Lemus on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PPD 225 at University of Southern California taught by Yan Tang in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Public Policy and Management in PPD at University of Southern California.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
PPD 225 Notes for 9/6 Review of last night’s readings Functional and Legislative Theories of Federalism: Shortened Points ● Functional Theory: Different areas of government are more easily/effectively administered by certain levels of federalism, thus each level should be in control of their most effective area. ● Developmental: Providing the social and physical facilitations needed for economic growth. Best run by state/local levels because smaller govs can tend to the unique needs of their community and collect info quickly and accurately. Certain aspects though, such as pollution and transportation require more communication between the smaller govs. ○ Block grants given by the national government can fund state/local governments. The goal is level out extreme inequalities but at the same time keep the incentive for local/state government to operate services with efficacy. ● Redistributive Focuses on reallocating resources in society from the fortunate to the less fortunate. Best run at a national level because they have better control of migration. If local govs reallocate benefits, the poor will come to gain benefits while the rich will leave to avoid taxes and low quality of life. But with recent globalization, companies are more willing to move outside of the US to avoid regulation/taxes/standards/etc. ○ Categorical grants help with reallocation because detailed requirements can’t be broken, so local govs can’t use it for development purposes like a grant. ● Legislative Theory: legislators aim to fulfill their own political needs. At any level, they’ll try to gain benefits for their constituents and credit for their namesake, while pushing governmental burdens to other levels in federalism. ● Developmental: Legislators preferred choice, as it enables them to show the area they represent that they have brought back observable benefits. It is believed that this “pork barreling” will almost ensure reelection, regardless of the additional cost taxpayers often face as a result. Less concerned about inequalities in finances, education, etc. ● Redistributive: Much harder for legislators to get behind because it’s likely to cause partisan conflict and support is based off of the wealth of the city/state. Blame avoidance is used by giving unfunded mandates: President/congressmen get the credit for creating equality while lower levels deal with collecting the cost. In Class notes ● There are some restraints when it comes to the government participating in redistributive. ○ Local and states expect that they receive the same amount of benefits as the taxes they give, but that can’t be the case. Take for example California and Mississippi. California, being a rich state, doesn’t get a proportionate amount of benefits in return for their high taxes, because the benefits are given to Mississippi, a poor state, to support them ○ National governments has to rely on the states and local levels, but states and local levels have their own agendas to attend to. ○ Larger cities, with a diverse variety of communities, income levels, poverty, and quality of life would be willing to take on redistributive funding but affluent cities or suburbs are more likely to deny this service ○ It’s hard for the national government to actually get the redistributive funding to those in need. Most of the time, funding is given by competitive grants, where each state or local level fight for money through proposals to the national government. But the problem is, poorer states and communities, who actually need to money, dont have the resources and people to write and produce competitive proposals. Notes for 9/8 Review from last night's reading. ○ Reform movement was produced by the progressive era and its goal was to eradicate political machines. Before, the machines gathered people by providing benefits yet they didn’t make the best governmental actions for the majority. ○ Three basic goals of the reform: elimination of corruption, greater efficiency, and more democracy. ○ Constant characteristics of in the municipal reform model: rational decision making and on increased efficiency in providing services ■ No political slant or emphasis of parties. More based on merit and honesty ■ Large open no partisan elections, recall process, no defined term limits, referendum petitions. ■ Municipal reform tends not to be apt to listen to disadvantage groups ■ Most cities have nonpartisan ballots for city elections ■ More likely to use councilmanager government ○ Opposite: Boynton political model. Large partisan elected council that aims to represent all interest groups ■ Political structures are likely to increase representation in minority groups ■ Mayor council government ○ Mayor council government variations. Both separate power of the executive and legislative branch ■ Weak mayor. More liked by smaller communities. Severely decentralized. A lot of power given to the council and control the municipal budget. Easy to lessen the damages of corruption. Council in in charge of overseeing the departments ■ Strong mayor. Centralized power to mayor including appointment without the permission of council. Mayor administers the budgets and oversees the departments ■ CouncilManagement form This set up is also for smaller city councils. People are elected through an atlarge ballot that is non partisan. Mayors play more of an administer/overseer role while the city manager implements the public services that need to be taken care of. ○ Ballot types: Partisan vs. Nonpartisan ■ As of today, roughly 77% of cities in the united states use non partisan ballots for the elections, as a way to get rid of political influence. ● Even though recent studies have shown that the type of ballot doesn’t actually affect the election of council members. ○ Electoral System: Atlarge elections vs district (ward) elections ■ 66% of cities use at large while 15% use ward elections ● At large benefits: Can bring up the concerns of the whole community. There is a smaller chance for political machines to buy their way into the seat because now they have more people to appeal to. Overall, the elected individuals should be more qualified and deserving of the role. ● Gives a better representation of the population because each district can represent their people. More focused on precise issues. Brings the city government more close to the people. In Class Notes ● For the last two weeks we have focused on the national and state government, we are now going to look at local and regional government. ○ Four major types of local government: Counties, cities, school districts, special districts. ○ Lets look at california: Anywhere in the state belongs to a county. 58 counties. In almost every county there are four elected position: Sheriff, district attorney, assessors, board of supervisors (5 people) ■ Counties act like agents of the state and administer social services and health to its citizens ■ Then counties provide services like jails (county jails are run by counties while prisons are run by state), running elections, and animal control ■ 88 cities in los angeles county (incorporated) rural areas are called unincorporated areas (services are provided by county) ● If you have a smaller city then most likely you are going to be a contract city, where you contract services and utilities from the county. ● Larger cities are going to be full service cities, where they provide services directly to their city, from police to water. ■ Now for local governments and cities you have two avenues: ● General law city Whatever the general structure of law a city can adopt from the state. Council(5), mayor, city manager. There a lot of state guidelines. Easy to interpret the rules. ● Charter city Decides not to use the general law. Los angeles, long beach, and glendale have their own unique system ● Municipal Home Rule each city has the right to have their own charter. ■ Special districts: Specialize in a certain service rather than a certain area. These service cover a variety of different areas. ● The metropolitan water district serves roughly 16 million people in southern california and is considered the biggest special district in california. ● Other districts include cemeteries, metro, and irrigation ■ Special county service areas are unincorporated areas that are closer to the urban areas. Because they are so close to urban areas that are able to get services from these cities (like a contract city) but they are also able to obtain higher quality and quantity of these services because of their proximity.
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