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GEO 121 Class Notes- Chapter 2

by: Grace Johnston

GEO 121 Class Notes- Chapter 2 GEO 121

Marketplace > Miami University > Geography > GEO 121 > GEO 121 Class Notes Chapter 2
Grace Johnston
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Chapter 2 book, class and lab notes- all in one!
Introduction to Physical Geography
Dr. Bartosz Piotr Grudzinski
Class Notes
Physical, geography




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Johnston on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 121 at Miami University taught by Dr. Bartosz Piotr Grudzinski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Physical Geography in Geography at Miami University.


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Date Created: 09/08/16
Grace Johnston GEO 121 1 of3 CHAPTER 2 NOTES 9.8.16 Latitude and Longitude- The Geographic Grid Latitude Lat is flat, lines extend EAST to WEST Measure NORTH to SOUTH Equator: The line that bisects the middle of the Earth, what latitude is measured from. Also known as 0 degrees latitude Parallels: Lines of latitude Low Latitudes: Lines of latitude between about 35* N and 35* S Longitude Lines extend NORTH to SOUTH Measure EAST TO WEST Measure from the Prime Meridian Prime Meridian: The arbitrary reference point for longitude that passes through Greenwich, England. Lines extend 180* E to 180* W Maps- The Basic Tool of Geographers The Elements of Maps 1. Title- Purpose 2. Legend- Explains symbols 3. North Arrow- Shows perspective 4. Scale- Conveys sense of space 5. Cartographer- Name of artist 6. Data Source- Where the map information came from 7. Contour Interval- The vertical distance between two contour lines Map Projections Map Projection: The representation of the three-dimensional Earth on a two dimensional surface Maps often have distortion because the Earth is round-it can not be evenly laid out. Conformal Projection: A map that maintains the correct shape of features on the Earth but distorts their relative size to one another. Equivalent Projection: A map projection that accurately portrays size features throughout the map. Map Scale Scale: A comparative measure Map Scale: The distance ratio that exists between features on a map and in the real world. Verbal Scale- Unit specific “ One Inch is equal to 2000 Feet” Fractional Scale- Not unit specific Grace Johnston GEO 121 2 of3 1: 20 000 Shows geographic representation with a ratio Must be recalculated if the map is changed in any way Graphic Bar Scale: The scales that show the actual size of units on the map. Scale remains accurate after being enlarged/reduced or photocopied. Thematic Maps Small and large scale mapping Large —-> Small ratios: 1:1000, 1:25,000 Small Scale Maps A map that shows a LARGE AREA and LOW DETAIL Representative fraction is a small number Used to show spatial relations of large areas Large Scale Maps A map that shows a SMALLAREA and HIGH DETAIL Representative fraction is large Used to illustrate detail like road networks and locations of parks Isolines Lines on a map that connect data points of equal value Mostly used to show regional temperature, atmospheric pressure, elevation and precipitation patterns Graphic Information Systems (GIS) Computer programs used to store, analyze, visualize and manipulate graphic data Also used to combine thematic maps, shows layers of what sits on the Earth’s surface Remote sensing The method through which information is gathered about the Earth from a distance Ariel photography is used to plot out the Earth’s surface, taken from satellites Geospatial maps Grace Johnston GEO 121 3 of3 System Concepts- Basic Systems and Science In Physical Geography Open System Where matter and energy move freely between boundaries Example: A car Imputs Outputs Pulls Gasoline CO 2 Windshield Gasses (O2, N2O, H2O vapor) Heat Rust Car Payment Movement Steering Wheel Closed System No substantial matter crossed between boundaries but energy flows freely Energy exchange: Radiation comes from the sun to the Earth, heat leaves the Earth. Example: A stream Imputs Outputs Pulls Precipitation Water Large Rocks Pollutants Water Vapor Water Debris Debris Debris Endogenic Systems INTERNAL processes that produce flows of heat and material from deep below the Earth’s crust Exogenic Systems External processes that set into motion air, water and ice Examples: Lava cooling at the water’s edge, wind erosions in canyons Equilibrium Example: Static and Dynamic Static: Cup is full of water, amount is untouched and unchanging. Dynamic: Cup is full of water, water is flowing out of the cup as fast as it’s flowing in Dimension: Fundamental measure of a physical quality Length, width, height, volume, weight Unit: Quantity in which dimensions are expressed Inches, centimeters, meters, miles


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