Social Psychology Week 3 Part 1
Social Psychology Week 3 Part 1 PSY 3310
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annah Shrader on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3310 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by David Frank Ross (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Social Psychology Notes Week three 9/08/16 Key Points from Chapter 12 Text Book Part 1 **These notes are from pages 218-226 in the book. I stopped at the section on love and will cover that in next week’s notes. The test has been pushed back until further notice. Friendship Having friends is found to be extremely positive People with friends are happier and healthier (living longer on average) than those without much social interaction. Some researchers put not having friends on the level of being obese or smoking a lifetime. Social pain, or emotional pain deriving from society, is found to effect the same neurons that physical pain effect. Humans have a need for affiliation which means what it sounds like: the desire to create and maintain relationships with others. Important things to know having to do with relationships: Proximity is one of the most important indicators of friendship or relationship. Seeing someone often makes it more likely to develop communication. Without being close to another person, no matter how compatible, the chances of meeting them are slim to none. Once seeing a familiar face, it develops into anticipation of seeing the person again whether it be planned or the coincidence of same scheduled appearance. Mere exposure to another person can increase the likelihood of liking that person: just because you see their face a lot. This is only if the exposure is neutral or positive initially. An example would be assigned seating in class and getting to know your neighbor instead of a person sitting further away. Studies have been completed showing that people are more likely to like other people based off of seeing them more often, even without interaction. It should be noted that online connections have changed the entire concept of proximity. Beauty: Physically attractive people get paid more on average They can get more signatures on petitions Physical attractiveness may not be learned, but rather hard wired into the human mind. People of all cultures tend to agree on the same people to be attractive. They are more likely to get a job. They are thought to be more successful and happier. The Matching hypothesis disproves the commonly held saying "opposites attract". It states that those who are similar to ourselves in attractiveness, and attributes are more likely to be targets for long lasting relationships than those who are different. This hypothesis even comes with an equation called the proportion of similarity that figures attraction. It's a fraction that divides topics agreed upon by total topics discussed. The concept of reciprocity means that we like those who like us back. It's hard to open up to someone who you know doesn't like you. Attachment Styles: Oxytocin is a hormone that is released in humans during interaction with others. It creates the feeling of trustworthiness. Infants, new fathers, and new mothers have increased levels especially when physically touching. Our first interactions as infants are extremely important for our later attachment styles. Attachment styles refers to the degree of security felt in the relationship. Some Studies Harry Harlow studied baby monkeys bonding experiences with fake mothers, one made of softer materials, the other made of wire. He found that monkeys preferred the soft mother and shined light on how important physical touch is for infants. John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth studies actual human babies and found out that infants develop views on self-esteem and interpersonal trust before they even learn to speak. The development of the attachment style effects the person later in life. The four types of attachment: 1.) Secure Attachment Style: High self-esteem. High interpersonal trust. This is the most successful of the four and most satisfying. 2.) Fearful Avoidant Attachment Style: Low in self-esteem. Low in interpersonal trust. The worst of the four. Hard to form relationships. 3.) Preoccupied Attachment Style: Low in self-esteem. High in interpersonal trust. Easy to form relationship. They crave closeness and are dependent. Emotional and anxious. 4.) Dismissive Attachment Style: High in self-esteem. Low in interpersonal trust. They expect the worse from others but the best from themselves. Attachment styles begin to take shape in infancy. But humans have brains capable of plasticity. They change through learning experience. The styles are not set in stone, but can be altered due to negative or positive experiences with others. Lecture notes: Rene Spitz in the 1940s studied infants in orphanages whose physical needs were met but there weren't enough caretakers to form an individual bond with each child. Many of them died. He found that attachment is critical to survival. 6 to 8 months is the critical period for infants to attachment. The quality of this attachment is related to adult romantic attachment. Humans are attracted to familiarity. He discussed the various forms of attachment and how they can change by environmental factors. This is covered in the chapter notes above. The infant can withdrawal completely or over attach to the caretaker. Two broad categories of emotions: Basic: emotions we are born with the capacity to have. Happiness, sadness, anger, disgust etc. Social: These emotions are only learned after the age of two. This is when the child develops a sense of self. Embarrassment, Shame, and pride are examples. Other Things Mentioned: Galvanic skin response is palm sweat. Interest is an emotion that decreases heart rate. All other emotions increase heartrate. Facial emotions are how infants communicate Infant theatre is where experimenters present different stimuli and videotape the face of the infant. There are no cultural differences in facial expressions. Microexpressions: can't control them. They are involuntary. Paul Ekman trains law enforcement to detect lies. Makes it a form of security. Polygraphs aren't used as evidence, which is why microexpressions are so important. Components of emotion -Cognitive: thoughts about the emotion -Physiological: sweating, heartrate, blood pressure etc. -Behavioral: smiling because you feel happy. Facial expressions. Only two videos watched today: Life's first feelings: Rene spitz and infants. Microexpressions video: Bill Clinton, OJ. Paul Ekman.
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