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BIO 120 CHP. 2

by: Kaity Notetaker

BIO 120 CHP. 2 Biology 120

Kaity Notetaker

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About this Document

These notes cover the topics we covered last wednesday on the Chemistry of Life portion
General Biology
Jennifer J Jenkins
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaity Notetaker on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 120 at Grand Valley State University taught by Jennifer J Jenkins in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Grand Valley State University.


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Date Created: 09/08/16
BIO 120 Chp. 2 Chemistry of Life I. Elements – What all living things are made up of  Cannot be broken down into other substances  Digression – deficiencies in essential elements can be problematic II. Atoms – units of elements  3 stable subatomic particles MASS CHARGE PROTON 1 A.M.U (+) POSITIVE NEUTRON 1 A.M.U (0) NEUTRAL ELECTRON ≈ 0 A.M.U (-) NEGATIVE EX: 6 < ATOMIC NUMBER C 12 < ATOMIC MASS  Potential energy of an electron depends on its location  think slinky  Energy Shell – divided into orbitals  Fills the first shell first (up to two electrons), then second (up to 8 electrons), then third (up to 8 electrons)  Valence Shell – outer most shell of an atom that has electrons in it COMPLETE : NOT REACTIVE VS. INCOMPLETE: REACTIVE III. Chemical Bond – (several definitions) Two atoms formed together to function as a unit  Bonds occur so separate atoms can become stable  Energy of the aggregate is lower than other  Types of bonds: Covalent (Polar and Non- Polar), Ionic, Hydrogen  Covalent: atoms share a pair of electrons  Nonpolar – Bond in which atoms share electrons equally  Polar – Bond where atoms share electrons unequally  Ionic Bonds – transfer of electrons, generating a transfer of opposite charged ions  Hydrogen Bonds – WEAK, short lived  Has low electronegativity  Van Der Waals – interactions between molecules with nonpolar covalent bonds


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