Financing Terrorism DSC 4012
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kamila Timaul on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to DSC 4012 at Florida Atlantic University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Terrorism in Criminal Justice at Florida Atlantic University.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
UNIT 3 – DEFINING AND MEASURING CRIME Classifications of Crime Civil Law Civil court is concerned with responsibility The burden of proof is preponderance of the evidence The remedy for violations of civil law is compensation Criminal Law Criminal court is concerned with guilt The burden of proof is beyond a reasonable doubt The remedy for violations is some from a punishment Civil Law vs. Criminal Law ISSUE CIVIL Law CRIMINAL Law Area of Concern Rights and duties between individuals Offenses against society as a whole Wrongful Act Harm to person or business entity Violation of a statue that prohibits some type of activity Party who brings suit Person who suffered harm (plaintiff) The state (prosecution) Party who responds Person who supposedly caused harm Person who allegedly committed a (defendant) crime (defendant) Standard of Proof Preponderance of the evidence Beyond a reasonable doubt Remedy Damages to compensate for the harm Punishment (fine or incarceration) Classification of Crimes Felonies More serious or atrocious than misdemeanors Punishable by death or imprisonment in a penitentiary for a period of a year or longer Misdemeanors Less serious crimes Punishable by fine and/or incarceration in a local jail for up to one year Mala In Se Acts that are inherently wrong, regardless of whether they are prohibited by law Examples include murder, rape, and theft Mala Prohibita Acts that are made illegal by criminal statute and are not necessary wrong in and of themselves Examples include speeding and loitering Measuring Crime in the U.S. The Uniform Crime Report (UCR) Produced by the Federal Bureau of Investigation Includes data collected from 17,500 policing agencies each year, including: Number of arrests Number of crimes reported Number of officers Part I Offenses Includes all crimes that do not fall into the category of Part I offenses Measured only by arrest data Occur five times more often than Part I offenses The National IncidentBased Reporting System (NIBRS): Expand the UCR Collects data on each single crime within 22 offense categories of 46 specific crimes Includes 4 sets of DATA: 1. Offense 2. Victim 3. Offender 4. Arrestees Victims of Crime Victim Surveys A method of gathering information in which citizens are surveyed directly regarding their criminal victimizations Victim surveys attempt to uncover the dark figure of crime Self Report Surveys Ask respondents to tell about their criminal activities Reliability is an issue Selfreport surveys are also an attempt to measure the dark figure of crime As a result of victimization, people can suffer from the following: Anger PTSD Guilt Anxiety Shame Depression Grief Drug Use Repeat Victimization Suicidal tendencies Crime Trends in the U.S. The “usual suspects” of crime fluctuation Imprisonment Youth Population The economy Crime, Race, and Poverty In general, poor people and minorities commit more crimes and more are often the victims of crimes, than wealthier people and whites Minority groups are overrepresented in terms of offending, arrest rates, and rates of imprisonment Neighborhoods with higher level of disadvantaged individuals have higher violent crime rates. Women and Crime Crime is a predominantly male activity, however female offending rates are steadily increasing Criminal Justice System is now more willing to incarcerate women Explanations include Alder’s “liberation hypothesis” and the “get tough” on crime movement