Introduction: Israel/Palestine- Heritage Challenge
Introduction: Israel/Palestine- Heritage Challenge HIS 209
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katharine Anthony on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 209 at Pace University taught by Professor Roland in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Israel/Palestine: Heritage/Challenge in History at Pace University.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Introduction Monday, August 29, 2016 1:46 PM 8 1/2 mill, 20% Israeli Arabs (Palestinian Israelis) Israel does not exist in a vacuum. It is bordered by Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, Saudi Arabia and Egypt. Though Israel is worried about Iran, Iraq, and Turkey as well. The Arab countries are mostly pro Palestine. The West Bank, Golan Heights and Gaza are occupied territories they have been occupied in 1967 after the 6 day war. Palestine is not an independent state, it is not a soveriegn state, there is a Palestinian authority but they do not have an independent state. If there is to a be a Palestinian state Israel wants to make sure it is secure. There are many israelis who are willing to have a sovereign state. The ideas are varying on what to do with the idea of an independent Palestine. In Dowty he begins to dispel myths about what the conflict is. o It is not a clash or religions In more recent years this has begun to happen with the beginning of Jewish orthodoxy and islamic extremism. Islam considers Jews and Christians People of the Book. (Dhimmis) That means they are protected peoples, they are monothesists and their religion descends from Abraham (Igrahim) Islam means peace and submission Semitic languages (Hebrew, Arabic S L M Islam submission : Submission to the word of god. Muslim: person who submits to God Another meaning of the the slm root is Shalom and Salamu alakum Anti-Semitism actually takes on racial stuff in the 19th century. o It's age old and goes back centuries The issue only began in 1880 with the beginning of Zionism, it's not age old The Jewish population lived better in the Middle East during the whole Middle Ages. It is a land dispute over who was there first and who had claim to the land. o Why did the Jews decide where they wanted Palestine? The area is because the Jewish people, the Israelites once had an independent state in the whole area of what we consider Israel/Palestine. Israel in the North Judea in the south, along the coast there were the Philistines ( a totally different ethnic group it's from them we get Filastine or Palestine) Because the Jewish people had their own kingdom there, therefore they referred to it as Eretz Israel. The Assyrians, then the Greeks, than the Romans, than the Byzantines, then the Arabs, then the Crusades. Most of the Jews who had lived there were expelled by the Romans. Historically both sides have a claim. The Jews said this is our traditional home and the Arabs say we have been living here for 1400 years. Eventually the Ottomans and then the British take it over. Obviously both sides want the colonizers and foreign presences to leave. o In the 20th century this dispute really heats up. It's not between two religious groups but between two ethnic groups (which is partially self- identity). The Jewish people have a long heavy history of persecution but not just that. Also monotheism . How important is religion to being a Jew? Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people, but the Jewish people don't all practice Judaism. The Arab people are just with language and from the Arab world. You don't need to be Muslim to be Arab. Arab culture is not super homogenous o This also makes the issue is Nationalist problem. Jerusalem is super important to the Jewish people because of the Temple. The first and second temples were destroyed. Roman's destroyed the second on in 70 ACE. Western Wall is from the 2nd temple. o Western Wall is known as the Wailing Wall. They lament the destruction of the temple and write little prayers and put them in the cracks. The Temple Mount holds the Dome of the Rock (3rd holiest place) In Islamic history Mohammad went to the Dome of the Rock niraj. He ascending to heaven meeting other prophets and gave him more directions. The La Aqsa mosque is right near it too. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (where Jesus rose from the dead) The Ottoman Issue In the 16th century the Ottoman Turks from Central Asia come through the whole Middle East (Iran, Turkey, Serbia, Kosovo, Greece, Syria, Palestine, Lebanon) They realize Jerusalem is so important they put it as their own separate providence. While they are there in 1492 all the Jews are expelled from Spain, where do they go? They go to the Ottoman empire and are welcome into their provinces. They weren't trying to establish national homes or state. They went to Istanbul, Ismere, and Palestine. The Ottoman Empire consisted of Turks, Christians, Arabs, Kurds. The Ottomans had a problem with all the Christians were that Christians were being put under European protection while in the Middle East. The Capitulation Treaties. With Napoleon's attacks and everything on Egypt and taking it over was imperialism beginning. 1839-1840 there were some British Leaders who were very much caught up in the second coming of Christ where they need to get the Jews back to Palestine so that they can convert and then Jesus can come back. Restorationism. They managed to convince the Foreign minister on this not in the religious sense but in the political sense that they thought that would be able to get some inroads in the Middle East to get land there. The Jewish leaders who they tried to convince were like "We'd rather have some equality in Britain than being told to go to Palestine." The British than tried to talk to the Ottoman Sultan about it and he was like " Absolutely no way. If they wanna come here on their own sure but no British protecting Jews." By the time you get to about 1880, in Palestine there are about less than 500,000 people (latest 462,000) 87-90% are Arabs, most Muslim, some Christian and maybe some are Jews. The muslim Arabs are mostly farmers who work in small villages. then you have 10% Arab Christian who were more urban and middle class. They lived in places that were important in the Christian story (Nazareth, Bethlehem, Jerusalem) The Jews constituted about like 20,000-25,000, who were religious and come from the Middle East or Europe and wanted to be buried in the Holy Land. They weren't interested in setting up a Jewish Homeland, they settled in places like Jerusalem, Hebron( Caves of the patriarchs), Tiberius. Abraham -Ibrahim Muslims accept it as a holy text as well even though there are some corruptions Ibraham and Hagar have Ismael. Sarah and Abraham have Isaac 14 years after Ismael is born. The Arabs descend from Ismael and Jews from Isaac. Abraham was asked to sacrifice Isaac in Jewish and Christian stories (The Dome of the Rock) Ibrahim was asked to sacrifice Ismael in Islamic stories (Mecca) Where Jews Originally Come From Jews who Originate from Europe after the exile: Ashkenazi (Yiddish) Jews who originate from the Iberian penisula: Sephardic (Ladino) Those who never left the middle east (Iraq, Syrian, Yemen, Iran): Mizachi (Judeo- Arabic, Judeo Farsi) o They were not interested in their own state. At the point of the 19th century there wasn't really Arab sentiment that was considered to be like, nomads. The Jewish Story Zionism: When the Jews want a homeland, when they get the idea that the homeland is to be in the Land of Israel, or Palestine. That's where their ancestral kingdom was and that was where they wanted their homeland. The Jews who get the idea that they want to go back there are the Ashkenazi Russian Jews. In western Europe (Italy, France, Germany,Britain) the Jews were assimilating in the late 19th century. They wanted full equal rights. There were some who felt that this was risky because there was a concern that they would be too assimilated with conversion, intermarriage and then loss of identity. In Central and Eastern Europe things were different. At the end of the 18th century Poland was partitioned (Germany, Austria, Russia) and the Russian part of Poland, and with it well over a million Jews. Russia was not a fan of Jews. The Russian Tzarina (Catherine the Great). She decides they need to stay where they are and they can't go in Moscow or any of the old Russia. The Pale of Settlement. o These Jews lived very poorly, making their lives hard, putting a lot of restrictions ( no land, no major cities only small towns) Shtetl, and they traded with the local farmers. Pogroms then begin to occur. The Russian Jews had to decide what to do they had some options: Conversion to Russian Orthodoxy Join Revolutionary movements in Russia A majority wanted to just leave, they mostly went to the US, but some wanted to go to Palestine. They were influenced by Leon Pinsker, who wrote Auto- Emancipation, to free yourself from oppression in Russia, go to Palestine and create a Jewish Cultural Center there. Small bands of Russian and Romanian Jews (high school and college) go and settle in Palestine. This starts the Zionist colonization of Palestine.