Jazz History, Week 2 Notes
Jazz History, Week 2 Notes 123-001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Germeroth on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 123-001 at Towson University taught by John M. Morgan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Jazz history for non-majors in MUSC at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
I. Elements of music o Melody *A series of pitches arranged in succession & in a particular rhythmic pattern to form a recognizable unit Pitch- relative highness/lowness of a sound Scale- sequence of notes arranged in ascending/descending order of pitch o Types: major, minor, pentatonic, blues, whole tune, octatonic, mudes, etc. Most often comprised of pitches in given scale 1 pitch & quality of that scale determine the “key” of the tune (Ex: G minor) Qualities of melody Begins, moves, ends Tension & release Stepwise VS. Leap motion Climax Legato VS> Staccato Made of phrases o Harmony *The way chords are constructed & how they follow each other in a song *Using multiple notes at the same time Chord- simultaneous sounding of 2 or more notes Chord Progression- sequence of chords arranged in succession Key- central tonality (group of notes of the melody or harmony of a song. A song will often begin & end w/ the root note) o Rhythm *Flow of music through time Beat- recurrent pulsation; divides music into equal units of time Tempo- speed of the beat, the pace Meter- grouping of beats, called “measures” or “bars” o Types: duple (2/4), triple (3/4), quadruple (4/4), others (5/4, 7/4, etc.) st Downbeat- 1 beat of each measure Rhythm (Meter) Most common meter in jazz is 4/4 time (& similar patternd of 4 beats each) The 2 MC, 3/4 time (Jazz Waltz) Rarely hear 5 & 7 Rhythmic effects Accent- emphasis placed on beat/note Syncopation- emphasis on unexpected beat/note Double time- when amount of musical activity (in soloist or in whole band) doubles (sound twice as fast) Half time- slows down by ½ (opposite of double time) Stop time- when band stops playing for certain amount & soloist is the only instrument to play Swing *A rhythmic pattern where the beat is divided into unequal halves, 1 half of beat a little longer than 2 ndhalf o Constant temps o Cohesive group sound o Rhythmic lilt o Spirited performance o Texture *Vertical aspect of a musical structure, usually w/ regard to the way individual parts or voices are put together Can be “Dense” o Form *The organization of a piece of music in a standard pattern Jazz relies on several common forms Blues form o *A 12 bar form that is one of the most common forms in jazz. The sequence of chords in blues form is: Bar: 1- 2- 3- 4- 5- 6- 7- 8- 9- 10- 11- 12 Chord: I I I I IV IV I I V V I I I, IV, & V depend on the key of the song EX: in the key of C, I=C, IV=F, & V=G There are many variations 32 Bar Song Form o *A 32 measure form very common to jazz. There are four, 8 measure phrases organized AABA o Bridge- the “B” section of an AABA 32 bar song form. In other forms the bridge can be a contrasting section (EX: ABA form, etc.) o Timbre *The “color” of the musical tone. Can be described like bright, dark, brilliant, mellow, rich, full, thin, etc. Has to do with unique sound of instrument(s) Pitch Alteration/Note Coloring Vibrato- slight fluctuation of a tone’s pitch, alternating above & below its basic pitch; used as an expressive device, varied in speed & amplitude by the performer to fit the style & feeling of the music Pitch Bend- the altering of a pitch usually down, as an expressive device why o Jazz Instrumentation Rhythm section Drums/Piano/Bass/Guitar Horn Section Brass/Woodwinds (‘Reeds’) Brass Trumpet/Flugelhorn (Sometimes trumpet double)/trombone Woodwinds Saxophone o Soprano o Alto o Tenor o Baritone Clarinet Flute II. Origins of Jazz o Began in 1890s in New Orleans o **Formed out of several African-American musical styles *Ragtime Blues Brass Band Music African American Sacred Music o Music for dancing o Heavy African influence o New Orleans Colonial History French (1718) Spanish (1769) Back to France 1801 U.S. Territory after Louisiana Purchase (1803) Haitian Revolution in 1809 sent Haitian refugees to N.O. o Civil War & Beyond 1865: War ends & slaves freed st 1865-77: reconstruction; fed. Troops occupy south; 1 attempt @ integration 1877: corrupt dealings b/t Northern republicans & southern democrats result in troop withdraw & beginnings of Jim Crow Laws; share cropping replaces slavery Cosmopolitan nature of N.O. is better than rest of South til 1890 o Demographics Creoles of color Light skinned blacks or children of black women/white men Lived in French quarter Spoke French Educated African-American descendants of slaves Lived in uptown, racially-diverse area Worked as servants & unskilled laborers Midterm listening ***NAME OF SONG, ARTIST , RELIVANCE
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