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Jazz History, Week 2 Notes

by: Alexis Germeroth

Jazz History, Week 2 Notes 123-001

Marketplace > Towson University > MUSC > 123-001 > Jazz History Week 2 Notes
Alexis Germeroth
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

These notes cover the elements of Jazz, some instruments that are used, and some of the history.
Jazz history for non-majors
John M. Morgan
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Germeroth on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 123-001 at Towson University taught by John M. Morgan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Jazz history for non-majors in MUSC at Towson University.


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Date Created: 09/08/16
I. Elements of music o Melody  *A series of pitches arranged in succession & in a particular rhythmic pattern to form a recognizable unit  Pitch- relative highness/lowness of a sound  Scale- sequence of notes arranged in ascending/descending order of pitch o Types: major, minor, pentatonic, blues, whole tune, octatonic, mudes, etc.  Most often comprised of pitches in given scale  1 pitch & quality of that scale determine the “key” of the tune (Ex: G minor)  Qualities of melody  Begins, moves, ends  Tension & release  Stepwise VS. Leap motion  Climax  Legato VS> Staccato  Made of phrases o Harmony  *The way chords are constructed & how they follow each other in a song  *Using multiple notes at the same time  Chord- simultaneous sounding of 2 or more notes  Chord Progression- sequence of chords arranged in succession  Key- central tonality (group of notes of the melody or harmony of a song. A song will often begin & end w/ the root note) o Rhythm  *Flow of music through time  Beat- recurrent pulsation; divides music into equal units of time  Tempo- speed of the beat, the pace  Meter- grouping of beats, called “measures” or “bars” o Types: duple (2/4), triple (3/4), quadruple (4/4), others (5/4, 7/4, etc.) st  Downbeat- 1 beat of each measure  Rhythm (Meter)  Most common meter in jazz is 4/4 time (& similar patternd of 4 beats each)  The 2 MC, 3/4 time (Jazz Waltz)  Rarely hear 5 & 7  Rhythmic effects  Accent- emphasis placed on beat/note  Syncopation- emphasis on unexpected beat/note  Double time- when amount of musical activity (in soloist or in whole band) doubles (sound twice as fast)  Half time- slows down by ½ (opposite of double time)  Stop time- when band stops playing for certain amount & soloist is the only instrument to play  Swing  *A rhythmic pattern where the beat is divided into unequal halves, 1 half of beat a little longer than 2 ndhalf o Constant temps o Cohesive group sound o Rhythmic lilt o Spirited performance o Texture  *Vertical aspect of a musical structure, usually w/ regard to the way individual parts or voices are put together  Can be “Dense” o Form  *The organization of a piece of music in a standard pattern  Jazz relies on several common forms  Blues form o *A 12 bar form that is one of the most common forms in jazz. The sequence of chords in blues form is:  Bar: 1- 2- 3- 4- 5- 6- 7- 8- 9- 10- 11- 12  Chord: I I I I IV IV I I V V I I  I, IV, & V depend on the key of the song  EX: in the key of C, I=C, IV=F, & V=G  There are many variations  32 Bar Song Form o *A 32 measure form very common to jazz. There are four, 8 measure phrases organized AABA o Bridge- the “B” section of an AABA 32 bar song form. In other forms the bridge can be a contrasting section (EX: ABA form, etc.) o Timbre  *The “color” of the musical tone. Can be described like bright, dark, brilliant, mellow, rich, full, thin, etc. Has to do with unique sound of instrument(s)  Pitch Alteration/Note Coloring  Vibrato- slight fluctuation of a tone’s pitch, alternating above & below its basic pitch; used as an expressive device, varied in speed & amplitude by the performer to fit the style & feeling of the music  Pitch Bend- the altering of a pitch usually down, as an expressive device why o Jazz Instrumentation  Rhythm section  Drums/Piano/Bass/Guitar  Horn Section  Brass/Woodwinds (‘Reeds’)  Brass  Trumpet/Flugelhorn (Sometimes trumpet double)/trombone  Woodwinds  Saxophone o Soprano o Alto o Tenor o Baritone  Clarinet  Flute II. Origins of Jazz o Began in 1890s in New Orleans o **Formed out of several African-American musical styles  *Ragtime  Blues  Brass Band Music  African American Sacred Music o Music for dancing o Heavy African influence o New Orleans Colonial History  French (1718)  Spanish (1769)  Back to France 1801  U.S. Territory after Louisiana Purchase (1803)  Haitian Revolution in 1809 sent Haitian refugees to N.O. o Civil War & Beyond  1865: War ends & slaves freed st  1865-77: reconstruction; fed. Troops occupy south; 1 attempt @ integration  1877: corrupt dealings b/t Northern republicans & southern democrats result in troop withdraw & beginnings of Jim Crow Laws; share cropping replaces slavery  Cosmopolitan nature of N.O. is better than rest of South til 1890 o Demographics  Creoles of color  Light skinned blacks or children of black women/white men  Lived in French quarter  Spoke French  Educated  African-American descendants of slaves  Lived in uptown, racially-diverse area  Worked as servants & unskilled laborers Midterm listening ***NAME OF SONG, ARTIST , RELIVANCE


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