ANSC 2000 notes, set 7
ANSC 2000 notes, set 7 ANSC 2000 - 001
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Elliott on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 2000 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Carolyn E Huntington in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Companion Animal Management in Animal Science at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
ANSC 2000 notes 8 Companion Rodents, Ferrets, & Lagomorphs Key Terms: 1. Crepuscularactive in twilight 2. Coprophagy eat their own feces for dietary needs 3. Malocclusion teeth don’t meet evenly 4. Diurnalactive at night 5. Monogamousone mate at a time 6. Polyestrous having more than one estrous cycle during a specific time 7. Polygamous more than one mate at a time 8. Pododermatitis inflammation of the feet 9. Alopeciabaldness 10. Granivorouseat seeds & grains 11. Cecotrophsproduce feces pellets they should eat 12. Lymphomacancer of the lymphocytes 13. Thrombocytopenia deficiency of platelets in blood 14. Photoperiodtime of exposure to light 15. Dyspnia difficulty to breathe 16. Dystociaobstructed labor 17. TMJ temporomandibular joint 18. Harderian glandgland behind eyeball produces red secretion resembling blood when animal is stressed or sick 19. Pinkies hairless rats after birth 20. Ad libitum for pleasure, not required ______________________________________________________________________________ Memorize: Chinchillas: - Adult males are bucks - Females are does - Young are kits Gerbils: - Incomplete Circle of Willis unique to them (collection of arteries that come together at base of brain) - >90 species Guinea Pigs: - Called cavies (Family: Caviidae) - Males are called boars - Females are called sows Hamsters: - Notorious escape artists so solidbottom caging with bedding preferred Ferrets: - Illegal to keep as pets in some states due to exaggerated fear of killing wildlife, biting, or spreading disease - Highly adaptable carnivores - Males are hobs - Females jills - Young are kits Rabbits: - Males are bucks - Females are does - Rank 5 in livestock meat production Mice & Rats: - 1000 species - Good pets for apartments that don’t allow cats or dogs or where there isn’t sufficient space for most pets and are less expensive ______________________________________________________________________________ Important Information: Scientists in Uruguay found fossil remains of a herbivorous 2,000 lb. rodent that lived 2 million4 million years ago in South America Chinchillas: Herbivorous rodent with broad head & large ears that is native of Andes Mountains of South America (related to the guinea pig) Dwell in rocky burrows & crevices in groups up to 100 - Family groups of 25 share the same burrow Valuable furs make them a target for trappers Clean & nearly odorless animals with soft, dense fur that is naturally a smoky blue grey color - Color variations include white, silver, beige & black Often used in biomedical research of human ear since anatomical structure & hearing range is similar Crepuscular & nocturnal Each foot has 4 digits Teeth grow continuously throughout life Chatter, sit erect, & urinate at threat with pelvic thrusts when threatened Active & prefer large cages for climbing and dust baths - Cages should include shelves for climbing o o Optimum temperature is 68 F, but >80 F is upper tolerance level Hindgut fermenters Sensitive to dietary changes (need high fiber) Restrain by grasping base of tail - Can be carried by base of tail for short distances - Can cup one hand under abdomen while holding base of tail & grip one hand over back of neck with other hand supporting the rear legs Sexually active at 8 months of age - Season breeders from November to May Polyestrous cycles averaging 41 days and gestation length of 111 days Females are large and more aggressive than males Ranchers have a unique breeding system where females are individually housed side by side with a connecting tunnel running behind and into each cage - Females are fitted with a collar to prevent entering tunnels while males have none Diseases: 1. Gastrointestinal disorders - Most common problems causing constipation as result of diet too low in fiber - Treatment of laxatives & increasing percent of fiber in diet 2. Bloat - Result of inability to vomit causing a swollen abdomen, lateral recumbency, & dyspnea - Treatment: emergency veterinary decompression 3. Malocclusion - Hereditarily grow teeth continuously - Treatment: trim teeth & don’t breed those affected 4. Integumentary disease - Ringworm is most common 5. Bite wounds - Grouphoused animals will fight particularly when females aren’t receptive to breeding and males can’t escape 6. Fur rings - Can prevent penis from retracting and can result in urinary obstruction and death 7. Bacterial diseases - Streptococcus, Pasteurella, Clostridium, Listeria, etc. 8. Conjunctivitis - Caused by dust baths Gerbils: Gerbils first brought to US in 1954 for medical research in brucellosis, tuberculosis, stroke, leprosy, rabies, etc. Adult gerbils don’t tolerate new cage mates and will kill o Creouscular & diurnal with a natural habitat as dry & harsh an environment as 58 F to 77 F so must conserve water efficiently They spend a considerable time burrowing - Foot stomping when alarmed or excited Incomplete Circle Willis enabled them for stroke research because if one artery is blocked, but the brain compensates from others Mark territory by rubbing ventral marking gland near umbilicus over objects (male & female) Monogamous breeding pairs should be permanently established before 1012 weeks old since sexually mature at 10 weeks - Males & female should remain together at all times where both will build nests & care for young - Gestation period is 25 days with 45 young born per litter Presence of mature animals will retard sexual development of samesex offspring Require minimal care where they drink little water & excrete little urine - Obtain most of daily water requirement through foods ingested Commercial rodent chow should be fed ad libitum where they naturally eat seeds, grains, & roots - Don’t practice coprophagy Best housed in solidbottom aging with bedding for burrowing Restrain by grasping base of tail Diseases: 1. Malocclusion of incisors - Trim teeth every 2 weeks 2. Epileptic seizures - Black gerbils most prone (genetic) 3. Nasal dermatitis (sore nose) - Territory: house gerbils on sand 4. Degloving - Skin pulling off tail exposing bone & must amputate 5. Tumors - In aged gerbils; ovarian cysts Guinea Pigs: Short, stocky animals with no tail that originated from South America Short legs, unfurred ears, 4 digits on front feet & 3 on rear Bred for food consumption for >3000 years Classified as rodents (most closely related to chinchillas & porcupines than rats) Crepuscular, nonburrowing, & strictly herbivorous Low odor & quiet behavior Used in biomedical research for immunology, genetics, infectious diseases, & nutrition Fussy eaters and may starve to death if diet is changed Form maledominant hierarchies when housed in groups, but fighting rarely occurs Tendency to freeze & scatter if startled commonly causing injury from jumping out of cages or falling off objects Use solidbottom cages with bedding - Very messy animals that defecate in feed & water if feed not dispensed appropriately Water is best provided using bottles with sipper tubes Bred monogamous or polygamous - Sexually active at 30 days, but breeding should be postponed until 34 months of age Gestation length: 68 days Diseases: 1. Pneumonia - Transmitted from rabbits & dogs and caused by bacteria Bordetella 2. Antibioticinduced enterotoxemia - Penicillin & related compounds alter intestinal flora resulting in overgrowth of gram negative bacteria - Symptoms include anorexia, rapid weight loss, dehydration, & death 3. Parasitic - Mites causing severe itching & selfmutilation - Lice are species specific & not transmissible to humans Miscellaneous Diseases: 1. Vitamin C deficiency (scurvy) - Require vitamin C with fresh fruits & vegetables o Diet can’t be replaced with other vitamin - Symptoms include spontaneous hemorrhage, swollen joints, & anoerexia 2. Malocclusion 3. Pododermatitis - Results from housing on rough surfaces such as wire 4. Alopecia - Action from dominant animal 5. Kidney Disease 6. Dystocia - If females bred for 1 time after 7 months of age Hamsters: Most common pet is golden or Syrian hamster - Golden hamster origin from Middle East (Syria) Natural environment is dry, rocky areas with tunnels deep underground - Provide cool temperature & higher humidity Near extinction in natural environment of Syria (last captured in 1980) Reddish golden brown color with loose skin, blunt nose, 4 digits on front, 5 in rear, & a short tail Nocturnal but awake for short periods of time in the day Adults weigh 35 oz. and females are larger than males Welldeveloped cheek pouches on either side of head used for transporting food back to tunnel for storage and even for females to carry entire litter In natural habitat, adults live singly in a burrow therefore they are territorial & will fight others - Females dominant to males Respond favorably through frequent handling, but must give them warning before picking up because they bite when startled Solidbottom caging with bedding preferred Granivorous & will hoard food & place in the corner of cage - Also practice coprophagy o Tolerate cold very well and will enter pseudohibernation at temperatures below 48 F Diseases: 1. Lymphoma - Caused by viral agent 2. Hamster Enteritis Complex - Bacterial caused disease describing several diarrheacausing diseases - Proliferative ileitis (acute disease is manifest by lethargy, anorexia, irritability, ruffled hair, diarrhea, dehydration, & death), Tyzzer’s disease (severe abdominal pain & diarrhea), & clostridiosis (antibiotic associated disease) 3. Kidney failure - Common agerelated cause of death 4. Artrial thrombosis - Blood clots develop in heart of aged hamsters Ferrets: Living wild ancestors include North American Black Footed ferrets, skunks, weasels, & minx Research purposes of infectious diseases, physiology, endocrinology, & embryology Easily housebroken Predators adapted to rapid, convoluted movements in narrow spaces Weigh 14 lbs. Each foot has 5 digits with nonretractable claws Simple stomach & short intestinal tract typical of carnivores - Ferrets can vomit Paired anal glands (scented, yellow liquid expressed if threatened) contributing to musky odor of male ferrets Sebacceous glands in skin (under androgen control) contribute significantly to odor and is reduced following castration Few sweat glands causing an inability to tolerate heat above 80 F Reach puberty at 812 months - Breading season March through August - Seasonally polyestrous - Ovulate 3040 hours after copulation - Gestation period 4142 days, but if no pregnancy a pseudopregnancy will follow for up to 4043 days Gestation lasting >42 days leads to dystocia; cesarean ½ of pseudopregnant jills remain in estrus & develop estrogencaused bone marrow suppression & thrombocytopenia that may be fatal even if treated Litter of 810 kits Respond to gentle handling & may be picked up, but to restrain you must scruff the neck with one hand & restrain the rear legs with the other hand (most relax or go limp & yawn when scruffed) - Digital pressure on TMJ will cause them to release bite May be housed in a cage partor full time, or roam house - Like to chew on things & climb into furniture crevices Will use litter pan Wirewalled cages with solid bottoms are best o o Prefer temps. Between 39 64 F Shade, fresh water, & good ventilation needed if housed in warmer areas (can overheat at 80 F) Strictly carnivorous with simple stomach, short intestinal tract, rapid transit time Eat several times & day & can be fed ad libitum - Commercial ferret feed or quality cat food mixed w/ liver ok & prefer poultry meat over beef or fish Breeding cages should be in a quiet area & contain a nest box with bedding Coitus is active where the male drags jill while biting her neck which elicits ovulation Orphaned young can be raised on kitten or puppy milk replacers Diseases: 1. Canine distemper - Fatal but can vaccinate against 2. Influenza - Passed to & from humans 3. Rabies - Vaccinate 4. Bacterial infections 5. Mites - Affect ears & feet 6. Intestinal Parasites 7. Heartworm disease - Mosquitoes; need routine heartworm medicine 8. Fungal diseases Rabbits: Domestic rabbits evolved in Europe & North Africa - Feral populations still exist, notably in Australia All other lagomorphs (cottontails, hares, etc.) don’t breed with European/domestic rabbits Herbivorous & crepuscular Various weights, hair coat types, hair colors, & breeds rd Lightweight bones, functional 3 eyelid, wide field of vision, & good light sensitivity Teeth continuously grow & constantly wear down Simple stomach with long intestines 10 times length of body - Have a cecum Chew food to powder size before swallowing Induced ovulators - Ovulate 913 hours after copulation Natural photoperiod with autumnal infertility - Receptivity yearfound with artificial lighting Live 510 years depending on diet Breed within hours of kindling & can lactate & be pregnant simultaneously - Does may produce 725 litters with 78 young per litter Can inflict scratches with rear feet or may bite - Male rabbits may castrate one another Mating occurs within minutes usually & pseudopregnancies can occur May thump one rear foot if fearful or aroused Can be housetrained Digest some fiber; optimal level 1317% crude fiber - Digest ~70% plantorigin products - Ingest directly from anus vitamin & proteinrich cecotrophs Food changes must be gradual otherwise microbial populations may change & cause fatality Some antibiotics (penicillins) may also disrupt intestinal flora & cause enterotoxemia Males have a rounded, donutshaped, protruding urinary opening Penis can be everted by applying digital pressure Bucks are sexually mature at 45 months Does are receptive for 710 days - Vulva is swollen & reddened Gestation: 2934 days - Require a nest box with shavings or straw Young delivered at night, hairless & blind - Rabbits may produce 40+ young per litter Diseases: 1. No common viral diseases - Those around are fatal with no commercially available vaccines 2. Bacterial Diseases - Pasteurellosis (carried in mouth & respiratory system) & clostridial enterotoxemia 3. Parasitic diseases - Protozoals - Fleas, ticks, lice, flies & mites - Fungals Mice & Rats: Class: Mammalia Order: Rodentia Short live span: 23 years Rat’s incisors grow continuously Special harderian gland Have no gallbladder but do produce bile Large surface area relative to body weight Gestation: 2123 days Begin breeding at 60 days of age Litter sizes average 612 pups - At birth, pups are hairless “pinkies” - Eyes are closed until 1417 days of age - Weaned at 3 weeks Rats are picked up by closing fingers around the chest, but don’t pick them up by the tail since it could pull skin off - Don’t enjoy being petted Provide proper food, shelter & protection from diseases Rodent diets available at pet stores Provide water by bottle with sipper tube Enclosures should be made of wire, stainless steel, plastic or glass since wood could be gnawed & is difficult to clean Prefer temperatures between 6585 F Need 12hour light/dark for successful breeding Diseases: 1. Parasites, bacteria & viruses - Mites & worms are common health concerns 2. Respiratory diseases - Most common problem 3. Tumors - Particularly mammary 4. Dental problems - Malocclusion ..\Pictures\Set 7 Crossword.png spaces included