Science of Human Nutrition Week 2 Notes
Science of Human Nutrition Week 2 Notes NUTR 23511-009
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by drswanson7 on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 23511-009 at Kent State University taught by Tanya R. Falcone (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Science of Human Nutrition in Nutrition at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Categories Deefned Energy Provdeed 3. Fatsnce of Human Nutrition: Week 2 (Slides 13-27) Saturated Fats: Animal 9 calories per To be consumed products and gram in moderation. animal bi- Can increase products. cholesterol levels. Ex: Nuts and avocados Unsaturated Plant products. 9 calories per Fats: To be Some may be gram consumed most acquired from Help to decrease often. diet. risk of heart Ex: nuts, fish disease. Trans Fats: Transformed 9 calories per over-processed (processed) gram or over-heated unsaturated fat. Can increase unsaturated Vitamins and cholesterol levels. fats. minerals help transport energy. Cholesterol Only found in Provides 0 animals or animal calories bi-products. Most High levels complete increase risk of proteins will have heart attack or cholesterol. stroke. Cholesterol is non-essential because our body makes it and we don’t need to get it *All of the above are needed to: 1.Convert carbs, fat, and proteins into usable energy and 2.for building and maintaining muscles, blood components, bones, etc. Categories Defined Energy Provided Provide 0 calories Phytochemicals: plants with Ex: Beta- Nutrient color. carotene considered to be Flavor Makes non-essential. Protects carrots Most commonly plants from orange. known as the insects and Red bell pigmentation of disease. peppers food. have more vitamin C than an orange. Green foods contain chlorophyll so it overpowers other colors. 2 Anti-oxidants: Chemical 0 calories Some can be substances that essential like prevent or repair vitamins or damage caused minerals but to cells caused we do not need by: some of them Ozone layer to survive so Oxygen: some are non- Oxidation essential. (damage that is caused by the tissues or cells in the body) Pollution Smoke *Both above protect the plant and human cells from damage that can make them susceptible to disease. Ex: Sulfur containing phytochemicals Helps prevent certain cancers o Brussel Sprouts: strongest sulfur containing phytochemical. Prevents cancers and protects genetic materials. Eating Brussel sprouts 3-4 times a week can reduce the risk of cancer by 40%. Some related terms to know: 3 Free Radicals: Free lone molecules hanging out and don’t like being alone so they latch onto everything they see. o Ex: cells, tissues Reduce Oxidation: anti-oxidants (provides free radicals something to stick onto) Essential VS. Non-Essential Essential o The body requires this nutrient but is unable to manufacture them. o Acquired through diet o 9 essential amino acids, the rest are considered non-essential. Non-essential o The body does not require these nutrients from the diet (although they may still be found in foods) o Either produces them or the body makes them o Does not require them in order to survive Essential Nutrients Vitamins o Biotin o Folate o Niacin o Pantothenic acid o Riboflavin o Thiamine o B6 o B12 4 o Vitamin C, A, D, E, K (Vitamin K found in leafy greens and vegetables. 50% of Vitamin K is made in our gut.) Minerals o Calcium o Chloride o Chromium o Copper o Fluoride o Iodine o Iron o Magnesium o Manganese o Molybdenum o Phosphorus o Potassium o Selenium o Sodium o Zinc *Don’t have to memorize above for the exam. Just be familiar with some of them. Other Essential Nutrients Omega 3 Omega 6 Certain amino acids (9) Non-Essential Nutrients Cholesterol Certain amino acids Phytochemicals 5 Requirements Varies from person to person and day by day Based on: o Age: as we age we require less amount of calories but more vitamins and minerals. o Gender: Females contain more body fat because of excess fat cells in their hip region for the purpose of childbirth. Men have more muscle tissues/cells. o Growth status: Growing children require more calories and more vitamins and minerals. o Body size: can depend on genetics; bone density. o Genetic traits: born with different amounts of fat cells. In addition to certain conditions o Pregnancy: When pregnant they are creating more tissues/cells. Need 100 more calories than already eating. o Breastfeeding: Need 500-700 calories more than already eating to replenish the body. o Illness: best thing to do is increase calories, vitamins, and minerals. o Drug use: illegal drugs: increase calories… legal (prescription) drugs: decrease or prevent calories o Exposure to environmental contaminate: smoke: eat more anti-oxidants *Above requirements will be on the exam, especially the highlighted region. 6 RDA VS. DRI RDA defined (recommended dietary allowances): o The minimal amount required for survival DRI defined (dietary reference intake): o Requirements to help you achieve optimal health Introduction Growth and health takes place within the cell and the fluid surrounding them. Body consists over one hundred trillion cells. Functions are maintained by the nutrients it receives. Problems arise when a cell’s need for nutrients differs from the available supply. Cells Building blocks of: o Tissues Muscles Bones o Organs Kidney Heart Liver o Systems Reproductive Respiratory Circulatory Nervous System o Cells need to live in a “utopia” 7 If deficient or toxic levels: Organ failure Cells produce proteins in abnormal forms Nutrition Concepts #4 Poor nutrition can result from both inadequate and excessive levels of nutrient intake. Introduction For every nutrient there is a range of optimal intake for optimal cell functioning. Either side of the range is associated with: o Behavioral/ cognitive disabilities o Physical Example: Vitamin C: wounds/healing o Low intake of Vitamin C results in bleeding gums (scurvy) Scurvy -> bleeding gums, pain upon being touched, impaired bone growth. o Marginal/ Mild Deficiency Delayed wound healing o Excessive/ High intake of Vitamin C results in diarrhea. Diarrhea Deficiencies Everything Starts in the Cells (Know all Steps) Step 1: o Inadequate dietary intake Ex: prolonged deficient vitamin A intake Step 2: 8 o Depletion of tissue reserves of the nutrient Ex: reduced liver stores of vitamin A Step 3: o Decreased blood levels of the nutrient Ex: reduced blood levels of vitamin A Step 4: o Decreased nutrient available to cells Ex: decreased vitamin A available to cells within eye Step 5: o Impaired cellular functions Ex: impaired ability to see in dim light (night time). (irreversible, but if caught early can prevent further damage) Step 6: o Physical signs and symptoms of deficiency Ex: outer covering of the eyes dries out, thickens, and becomes susceptible to infection Step 7: o Long-term impairment of health Ex: outer covering of the eyes dries out and thickens; vision is lost 9
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