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SOCI 411- Week 3 & 4

by: Nicolette Notetaker

SOCI 411- Week 3 & 4 SOCI 411

Nicolette Notetaker
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
GPA 3.5

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These notes cover the ideas from functionalists, Hebert Spencer and part of the section we covered about Talcott Parsons.
Sociological Theory
Mr. Hua-Lun Huang
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicolette Notetaker on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 411 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Mr. Hua-Lun Huang in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Sociological Theory in Sociology & Anthropology at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 09/08/16
Third Notable Functionalist  Hebert Spencer  Spencer noted, that we society can be broken down into 4 various societies: (1) undifferentiated society, (2) compounding society, (3) secondary compounding society, and (4) trebly compounding society  Spencer also explains : human society will convert from civilized (basic living) to the most complex society. 1 Variable – Regulation (social control of each society) o Undifferentiated society –-> living is not complex but simple and “tribal”; social order is regulated by “pure violence” o Compounding society living is farming-based; in this society, social control is maintained by village leaders through “local authority” o Secondary Compounding society –-> emerging or growing society; this society sustains social control via “government” o Trebly compounding society-very complex society ( can be either a military or industrial society); social control is sustained by “interest groups” or through “consensus” a. military society, for instance may be similar to Nazi Germany; controlled by military leadership  (component of “militariansim”) b. industrial society can be related to modern America (which is controlled by a form of “democracy”) 2nd variable – OPERATION (way society will function) st  1 element  Operation (of religion) 1. undifferentiated societypractices polytheism 2. compounding society both polytheism and monotheism are practiced 3. secondary compounding society both polytheism and monotheism are practiced, but monotheism is more popular overall 4. trebly compounding society  both polytheism and monotheism are practiced but monotheism is more popular overall; many various religions to practice (Sidenote :one popular religion being Christianity); able to examine various “religious sects”  2 ndelement  Operation (of family) 1. undifferentiated society  incest is frequent because there are not many options to chose from in this society (Sidenote: this will become a social taboo once society becomes more complex) 2. compounding society  incest is traded for arranged marriages in this society 3. secondary compounding  individuals begin to aim towards equal marriage (such as social structure or social class) 4. trebly compounding society  diverse marriage is the main focus of this society (various social structure containing single-parent households, gay marriage, and cohabitation)  3 rdelement  Operation (of law) 1. undifferentiated society  no official set of rules (practice informal rules/customs) 2. compounding society  one specific law used to solve one issue, form of a legal system; abstract and vague law, can be applied to various walks of life 3. secondary compounding society  follows civil law system, where the laws are more particular) 4. trebly compounding society  rules have are very specified and professional; huge number of laws  4 thelement – Organization (of community) 1. undifferentiated society –-> completely homogenous (a.k.a Gemeinschaft) with (relocation is not really likely) 2. Compounding society –-> small villages (a.k.a Gemeinschaft), not as similar to undifferentiated to society (relocation is more personal and can begin to observe some heterogeneous components 3. Secondary compounding society  heterogeneous society (similar to a Gesellschaft, composed of huge towns and cities 4. Trebly compounding society  authentic Gesellschaft (composed of metropolitan cities, and many expanded areas)  not likely to practice similar rules, values, customs, behaviors, and marriage systems  5 thelement- Organization (of stratification) 1. undstferentiated society ndased on a two tiered system ( 1 level clan leader, 2 level follower) 2. compounding society  based on a three-tiered system (1 level– local officials/political power holders, 2 ndlevel rd – local gentry, 3 level – followers {serfs/slaves} ) 3. secondary compounding society  based on a four- tiered system; (1 st le- ruling elites, 2nd le- local officials, 3 rd l- local gentry, 4 th le- public followers [serfs/slaves, who are the least resourceful] ) 4. trebly compounding society  based on a five-tiered system (1 st le- ruling elites, 2nd lev–local officials, 3rd level – local gentry {such as influentialthlike priests, professors, and famed musicians), 4 level – the public, 5 level- marginalized populations {such as abandoned/isolated populations composed of prostitutes, drug dealers, and gang members} Form of movement 1. Undifferentiated society – no form of social movement 2. Compounding society – mobility is rare 3. Secondary compounding society –sometimes mobility occurs 4. Trebly compounding society – mobility is frequent 2nd variable  DISTRIBUTION  1 element – Distribution ( of material) 1. undifferentiated society  method of bartering is used 2. compounding society  agricultural methods are used (resources allocated and formed by clan leaders/power holders 3. secondary compounding society  material is distributed by the government 4. trebly compounding society  materials are allocated by professional associations  2 ndelement- Distribution (of information) 1. Undifferentiated society  information is given by clan leaders 2. Compounding society  information is given by travelers 3. Secondary Compounding Society  information is distributed by the government 4. Trebly Compounding Society  information is distributed rdhrough the media  3 element – Distribution (of social positions) 1. Undifferentiated society  social positions are established by ascribed status (demographic factors like gender or race) 2. Compounding society  social positions are determined by ascribed and achieved status (Note: check to make sure because I may have this part wrong) 3. Secondary compounding society social position determined by ascribed and achieved status 4. Trebly compounding society  social position determined by achieved status (these societies can be military or industrial societies a. Military societies - Regulation- wanting every social member to show total obligation in order to transform society into a combined unit - Operation- is obtained through social order by military power/strength - Distribution- is done through a planned economy b. Industrial societies - Regulation- (didn’t catch this part of what he said) - Operation – through equality - Distribution – through social welfare (resources are allocated so that no one will become too rich or too poor) Five Reasoning Models *used to describe evolution of human society 1. Unilinear Model – human society will constantly develop from the simplest unit to a more complicated unit, and finally the most complicated unit -Durkheim, Spencer and Comte all shared ideals similar to this 2.Espisodic Model – when a huge result occurs and becomes very complex because of a social event (Ex. Such as the events of 9/11 and military conquests) 3. Imminent Change  an internal and immense change; a new knowledge system  nature of human society may differ (Ex, the Industrial Revolution in England that occurred which changed from an agricultural society to a developed society 4. Cyclical Model – development of human society will repeat itself again and again; a never-ending process (changes from simplest to most complicated society) 5. Multi-Linear Model- simple society can follow various paths/directions (Ex. People who are on the want economic growth, having various options in order to transform into expanding societies) -Possibilities include Westernization, and Americanization - Different paths of development can also transform from the simplest unit to the most complicated unit Third Notable Functionalist  Herbert Parsons Parsons said that there are different developments for social action and human society can be considered social systems I. Typology of Social Action 1. Nature (3 forms): o Instrumental (acts that deal with money and economic events); such as receiving a check o Expressive (actions that involve emotion), such as comforting a child o Moral (acts that are socially/culturally expected; norms or “prosocial” actions), such as driving the speed limit 2. Pattern (2 pairs) o Affection acts vs. affection-neutral acts st o Diffuse acts vs. specific acts *1 social action, according to COVERAGE : We can sort patterned actions into categories -affection acts  emotional involvement - affection-neutral acts  does not involve emotion nd *2 social action, according to OBLIGATION: -diffuse acts  all individuals have the power to make actions (ex. Paying taxes) -specific acts  only a select few have the chance to make actions *3 social action, according to STANDARD: -universal acts involve specific standards (ex. All high schoolers who take standardized tests, voting behavior -particular acts  accord. to some standards, only a few people need to take on those actions (taking the GMAT to get into business school) *4 social action, according to social identity and personal performance: -ascribed actions  these social actions are gender, race oriented (Ex. Male-dominated sport such as football, and a female-dominated sport such as beach volleyball -achieved actions  these actions involve personal achievement and is not related to gender/race *5 action, according to cooperation: - personal acts  performed by individuals (Ex. Muslims practicing 5x/day) - collective actions  performed by groups of people (Ex. academic performance) Parsons said we can also divide a combination of three actions into four social systems/subsystems: o Certain affective actions can be considered: 1. Instrumental action (Ex.) – parents paying tuition for kids because of things like affection and love 2. Expressive action (Ex.)- sending sympathy card/Christmas cards to friends to express your condolences for them 3. Moral action (Ex.) : taking care of parents or children; medical care o Certain social actions are affection-neutral, these actions can also be considered: 1. Instrumental action (Ex.) – getting approved for a loan at the bank 2. Expressive action (Ex.)- most nurses taking care of patients because it’s their job 3. Moral action (Ex.)- car dealers have moral obligations to tell you everything about the car not because they like you, but because of moral behavior o Certain social actions are diffused, these actions can also be: 1. Instrumental action (Ex.)- everyone has an obligation to pay taxes 2. Expressive action (Ex.)- parental love; having the obligation to show love to children 3. Moral action (Ex.)- providing shelter to stray dogs/homeless people o Certain social actions are specific, these actions can be considered: 1. Instrumental action (Ex.)– alimony; not all husbands have the obligation to give financial support to their wives 2. Expressive action (Ex.)- paramedics taking care of an injured person in the street 3. Moral action (Ex.)  only people using the toilet have the obligation to flush the toilet In result: (*Note, I= Instrumental, E=Expressive, and M=Moral) -Affection acts  I (1), E, & M -Affection-neutral acts  I (2), E, & M -Diffuse acts  I (3), E, & M -Specific acts I (4), E, & M -Universal acts  I (5), E, & M -Particular acts  I (6), E, & M -Ascribed acts  I (7), E, & M -Achieved acts  I (8), E, & M -Collective acts  I (9), E, & M -Personal acts  I (10), E, & M II. Emergence of Social Systems o According to emergence of social systems, the combination of all Is (Instrumental acts)  I (10)  allows people to create economic system in society (Ex. buying, trading, selling, shopping)  always involve money o The main function of economic society: to help its members adapt to the environment (adaptation) o Of all Es and Ms, the combination of these acts will allow people to form a cultural system in their society.


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