Eng 325 class notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clarissa Notetaker on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENG 325 at Humboldt State University taught by Dr. Kathleen Doty in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Week 3 English 325 History of the English Language Features of Old English Syntax 1. Noun declensions: -Showed the function of nouns in sentences example: sē wifmann geseah þone hengest (the woman saw the horse) - 'sē' indicates that the woman (wifmann) is the subject and agent of the sentence - 'est' in 'hengest' indicates that the horse is the object of the sentence -Word order didn't matter. If the words of the above sentence were moved around, they would mean the same thing because of the noun declensions and word endings. 2. Possessive (Genitive) Form -The genitive marker was attached to what was being possessed example: se aeppel þaet leafes hit is gōd (the apple's leaf is good) - the leaf is being possessed, so 'leafes' has the 'es' genitive (possessive) ending rather than the apple as in modern English. Word Formation--how new words were created -Compounding: yoking two independent words together to form a new word example: ear + hring = earhring (earring) -compounding is still used to create new words in modern English: mailman, birdhouse, etc -Repetitive compounding: using words that are spelled differently but have the same meaning to create a new word. example: holt + wudu (two words for 'wood') = forest -Adjectives were also compounded to create new words Remnants of Old English in Modern English Nouns--Plurality -In Old English, plurality was attached to case example: earen--the 'en' ending indicated plurality -now, plurality is indicated by adding 's' to words (also, possession is indicated with 's or s') -however, some words such as 'deer' and 'sheep' do not have plural endings. These words tend to come fromAnglo Saxon -'oxen' is the only survivor of using 'en' for plurality Verbs -Impersonal verbs were used without subjects example: mē lyst raedan (it pleases me to read) -the verb object (mē) comes before 'it' Adjectives -Adjectives needed to agree in case, number, and gender with the nouns they modified -Adjectives had strong and weak declensions Strong: the adjective has no pronoun or demonstrative before it example: gōd wif (good wife) Weak: the adjective is preceded by a demonstrative or possessive pronoun. 'An' was a common ending. example: se goda mann (the good man) -Now adjectives are modified with different forms Comparative: old, older, oldest -in Old English, the comparative was 'ra'-- 'heardra' (harder) -the superlative was 'ost'--'heardost' (hardest) -some words don't follow the pattern: good, better, best; bad, worse, worst
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