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What is a primate? What are the suborders? What animals are primates?

by: Mary Jo Davison Gould

What is a primate? What are the suborders? What animals are primates? ANT 301

Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > ANT 301 > What is a primate What are the suborders What animals are primates
Mary Jo Davison Gould
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About this Document

If you're not sure what a primate is or if you can't name a primate these notes can help you out. They talk about the different suborders and examples for the suborders. There are also some really ...
Edward Kirk
Class Notes
Anthro, Anthropology, BioAnthroplogy, PhsyAnthroplogy, primates, PrimateOrders, Suborders, Introtoanthropology, whatisaprimate, animalvideos





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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary Jo Davison Gould on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 301 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Edward Kirk in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 78 views.


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Date Created: 09/08/16
What is a Primate? Primate order: Prosimians, Monkey, Apes, and Humans Carolous Linnaeus and Systema Nature (1758)  He is also known as Carl Linnaeus or Carl von Linne  Systema Nature = System of Nature o Had originally put Humans and orangutans in the same genus  Order #1- Primates  Linnean Taxonomic Hierarchy (Humans) Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Primates Family Hominidae Genus Homo Species Sapiens Animals originally considered a primate  Bats – order: Chiroptera  Flying Lemur or Colugo – order: Dermoptera  Tree Shrews – order: Scandentia Shared Characteristics 1. Forward facing eyes 2. Wide binocular field and stereoscopy a. Sense of 3 dimensional that comes with mental fusion of slightly different images from the left and right eyes. b. Fine depth perception 3. High visual activity 4. Orbit surrounded by bone 5. More and larger visual brain areas 6. Grasping (PREHENSILE) hands/ Divergent thumbs a. Except for the spider monkey who does not have a thumb 7. Grasping (PREHENSILE) feet/ Divergent big toe a. Except for Humans who do not have a divergent big toe 8. Flattened nails instead of claws 9. Large apical pads on tips of digits a. Sometimes they contain fingerprints 10.Smaller litter size a. Most common litter size is one 11.Long period of gestation and infant dependency a. Infant dependency usually lasts from 1 to 16 Arboreal Hypothesis Sir Grafton Elliot-Smith  Arboreal = ‘In the trees’ o Binocular vision was needed to see the next tree. (Because of jumping from tree to tree) o Grasping hands needed to grab the tree limbs to ‘land’  Problem #1 = SQUIRLES o Not all arboreal animals have forward facing eyes  Problem #2 = SQUIRLES o Not all arboreal animals have grasping hands  In conclusion Arboreality is insufficient to account for the evolution of primates o The comparative method is used for this hypothesis testing Nocturnal Visual Predator Non-Primate Animals  Forward facing eyes can be very important to catch food o Owls – use their legs to catch mice o All types of Cats – use their claws to catch and ‘grab’ food o Animals with forward facing eyes catch their prey in a very similar way (using their limbs to in a way grab the prey and then use their mouth to finish it off)  Reason for these animals to have forward facing eyes is for depth perception. Earliest Fossil primates found were small nocturnal predators  Forward facing eyes needed because they were nocturnal Visual Predation Hypothesis  Matt Cartmill – “Small, arboreal, nocturnal, visual predator occupied microhabitat characterized by small-diameter supports” – Last common ancestor HANDS  Animals (Pygmy, Possum, Tree Rat, etc.) that spend most of their time on tiny branches tend to have primate like hands  Most arboreal mammals use hand/claws different from primates Taxonomy and Order Primates  Taxonomy o Science of naming/classifying organisms o Scheme of classification o Started in earnest with Linnaeus  Order Primates – based on ecology (organism’s interaction with its environment) o Suborder: Anthropodiea  Humans, Apes, Monkey o Suborder: Prosimi  Lemurs, Lorises, and Tarsiers  Order Primates – Phylogenetically based by classification (hypothesis of an organism’s evolutionary relationship) o Suborder: Haplorhini  Tarsiers, Monkey, Apes, Humans o Suborder: Strepsirrhini  Lemurs, Lorises Tarsier  Very long feet  Vertical clinger and leaper  Huge eyeballs (largest head to eye ratio) o Nocturnal  Only eats meat  Pair living with lifelong mate  Share derived (Apomorphic) features with anthropoids  Reduced size/complexity of nasal cavity  Loss of rhinarium o Moist hairless patch of skin around the nose (example: cat, horse, and dog nose)  Jacobson Organ – processes pheromones to know how other animals feel/etc o In dogs, not in humans/tarsiers, most people think tarsiers because of the similar noses o It is part of the split upper lip of dogs  Retina Fovea o “Pit” in Latin o Boosts visual activity o Light has unobstructed path to go straight to the retina (only in monkey, apes, tarsiers, etc.)  Funny and silly but factual video of tarsier’s I enjoy, Suborders  Strepsirrhini o Lemuriformes (lemurs)  Madagascar  Cherigaleidae family  Fat tail dwarf lemur  Mouse lemur – smallest living primate  Nocturnal  Lemuridae family –  Day active lemurs  Black mongoose, ringtailed, bamboo  Indriidae  Indri o Live in pairs o Have no tail  Sifaka o Funny when they walk on the ground o v=i8jqqkSzNgo (youtube video proof)  Daubentoniiade  Aye-Aye o Rodent teeth o Ball and socket middle finger o Claws o Lorisiformers (lorises, galagos)  Africa and Asia  Galagos  Bushbabies (live in bushes and sound like babies )  Only in Africa  Nocturnal  Arboreal  Vertical Clingers and leapers (some)  Diet: Insects, fruit, gums (out of tree bark)  Lorises  Africa and Asia  Arborial  Nocturnal  Slender loris o 100% carnivorous nd o 2 largest head-eyes ratio  Slow lorises (Asia) o Venomous primate  It’s on their wrists  Licks it and rubs it on their body to protect itself o Toxic bacteria is also found in their mouths.


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