Music 121 Week 4 Lecture Notes
Music 121 Week 4 Lecture Notes Music 121
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jamie Bynum on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Music 121 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Bailey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Listening in Music at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Lecture: Baroque Music September 8, 2016 Professor: Dr. Bailey *1600-1750* Name “baroque” borrowed from the art style, which is considered over the top and ornate • Music mainly enjoyed by the wealthy - Private patronage in court system (dukes, lords, etc.) Sacred music still important, but composers begin to shift • toward secular music • Italy, particularly Venice, was the main center of music - Political power and wealth - Other areas active towards end of era Musical Features: • Rhythm - Tempos stable throughout a composition - Repetitive rhythmic patterns organize a composition • Melody - Short fragments of melodies (motives) • Texture - Mostly polyphonic; shifts towards homophonic by era’s end • Dynamics - Limited ranges *Terraced dynamics changing levels in a non-gradual manner • Emotional Connection - Shift to tonal music evoked emotional response (one key used per piece or vocal movement) • Form - Clearly deﬁned sections with repetition more common - Ritornello form (“return form”): main theme returns after statements of new music ****Almost everything in baroque era is based on Ritornello form • Instrumental and vocal music ﬂourished with new genres Baroque Opera: • Camerata (“Fellowship”) - Group of noblemen, artists, and academics in Florence - Wanted to authentically revive Ancient Greek drama • Spoken drama intensiﬁed with addition of music - Originally used mixture of speech and singing to project in amphitheaters *Recitative: Mixture of speech and singing in opera to advance plot *Aria: full singing that develops dramatic situation; “song” • Monophonic texture developed into simple homophonic texture - Words easily understood - Emotional connection to get heightened with harmonic support • Claudio Monteverdi: Bridge from renaissance to baroque - L’Orfeo: 1st opera that survived in its entirety * Written for Duke of Mantua (Private patronage) * Established opera expectations Overture (instrumental prelude) Aria/Recitative structure • Opera became more elaborate and complex as era progressed but kept basic aria/recitative structure Baroque Oratorio: • Uses aria/Recitative format like opera, but more budget-friendly productions - No acting, costumes, lighting, staging, etc. Performed in the Oratory (Oratorio) of a church • - Most are sacred, but secular also existed • Like Renaissance madrigals, started in Italy then became popular in England by Era’s end George Frideric Handel: • German composer who lived majority of life in England • Began as successful opera composer • Turned to oratorios after ﬁnancial troubles with the Royal Academy of Music (English opera company) • Today considered one of the most important composers of oratorio ever • “The Messiah” (1741) - best known oratorio today - Mixture of overture, arias, recitatives, and choruses (Like in opera) Baroque Cantata: • Small-Scale oratorio • Typically sacred, but could be secular • Used in church services to develop on lesson of the day - Ends with Chorale (hymn) for choir and congregation • Johann Sebastian Bach - Gifted organist and composer - Best-known composer of cantatas (well over 300) * Many have been lost - Cantata No. 140 “Wachet auf” * Most widely performed today * Text ﬂexible to use as multiple times of year * Seven movements: Chorale, fantasia, recitative, arias, chorus, closing chorale
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