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Music 121 Week 4 Lecture Notes

by: Jamie Bynum

Music 121 Week 4 Lecture Notes Music 121

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Music > Music 121 > Music 121 Week 4 Lecture Notes
Jamie Bynum

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About this Document

These are the notes from the lecture given by Dr. Bailey on September 8, 2016. The title of the lecture was "The Baroque Era".
Introduction to Listening
Dr. Bailey
Class Notes
Music, Baroque
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jamie Bynum on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Music 121 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Bailey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Listening in Music at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Lecture: Baroque Music September 8, 2016 Professor: Dr. Bailey *1600-1750* Name “baroque” borrowed from the art style, which is considered over the top and ornate • Music mainly enjoyed by the wealthy - Private patronage in court system (dukes, lords, etc.) Sacred music still important, but composers begin to shift • toward secular music • Italy, particularly Venice, was the main center of music - Political power and wealth - Other areas active towards end of era Musical Features: • Rhythm - Tempos stable throughout a composition - Repetitive rhythmic patterns organize a composition • Melody - Short fragments of melodies (motives) • Texture - Mostly polyphonic; shifts towards homophonic by era’s end • Dynamics - Limited ranges *Terraced dynamics changing levels in a non-gradual manner • Emotional Connection - Shift to tonal music evoked emotional response (one key used per piece or vocal movement) • Form - Clearly defined sections with repetition more common - Ritornello form (“return form”): main theme returns after statements of new music ****Almost everything in baroque era is based on Ritornello form • Instrumental and vocal music flourished with new genres Baroque Opera: • Camerata (“Fellowship”) - Group of noblemen, artists, and academics in Florence - Wanted to authentically revive Ancient Greek drama • Spoken drama intensified with addition of music - Originally used mixture of speech and singing to project in amphitheaters *Recitative: Mixture of speech and singing in opera to advance plot *Aria: full singing that develops dramatic situation; “song” • Monophonic texture developed into simple homophonic texture - Words easily understood - Emotional connection to get heightened with harmonic support • Claudio Monteverdi: Bridge from renaissance to baroque - L’Orfeo: 1st opera that survived in its entirety * Written for Duke of Mantua (Private patronage) * Established opera expectations Overture (instrumental prelude) Aria/Recitative structure • Opera became more elaborate and complex as era progressed but kept basic aria/recitative structure Baroque Oratorio: • Uses aria/Recitative format like opera, but more budget-friendly productions - No acting, costumes, lighting, staging, etc. Performed in the Oratory (Oratorio) of a church • - Most are sacred, but secular also existed • Like Renaissance madrigals, started in Italy then became popular in England by Era’s end George Frideric Handel: • German composer who lived majority of life in England • Began as successful opera composer • Turned to oratorios after financial troubles with the Royal Academy of Music (English opera company) • Today considered one of the most important composers of oratorio ever • “The Messiah” (1741) - best known oratorio today - Mixture of overture, arias, recitatives, and choruses (Like in opera) Baroque Cantata: • Small-Scale oratorio • Typically sacred, but could be secular • Used in church services to develop on lesson of the day - Ends with Chorale (hymn) for choir and congregation • Johann Sebastian Bach - Gifted organist and composer - Best-known composer of cantatas (well over 300) * Many have been lost - Cantata No. 140 “Wachet auf” * Most widely performed today * Text flexible to use as multiple times of year * Seven movements: Chorale, fantasia, recitative, arias, chorus, closing chorale


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