Wildlife Week 2 of Notes
Wildlife Week 2 of Notes ENWC 201
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Popular in WIlldlife Conservation and Ecology
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophie Menos on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENWC 201 at University of Delaware taught by Dr. McCarthy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Wildlife conservation & Ecology in WIlldlife Conservation and Ecology at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Ecology Basics 9/6/16 8:19 PM ecology • the study of interactions between organisms and their environment ecosystem • a biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in a particular areas, as well as all the nonliving, physical components of the environment with which the organisms interact such as air, soil, water, and sunlight • no defined scale – long as self-sustaining, energy flow, and matter transfer • biggest – biosphere o 1.4 mi into crust – 11 mi up into atmosphere energy • carbon cycle • nitrogen cycle o building block of DNA, RNA Ecology Basics 9/6/16 8:19 PM Nutrients cycle, energy flows • source of energy: o sun sole source of energy in the living body § comes from a plant o green plants critical link between the sun and all living things on earth because of photosynthesis • second law of thermodynamics o energy transformation is not 100% efficient Energy Pyramid • trophic levels o each of several hierarchical levels in an ecosystem, comprising organisms that share the same function in the food chain and the same nutritional relationship to the primary sources of energy. o primary producers § plants § energy transfer most efficient o primary consumers § herbivores o secondary consumers § carnivores o tertiary producer § top carnivores § energy transfer least efficient • 10% rule of thumb o about 10% energy used in one trophic level will be available to the next • always greatest number of individuals are found in the base of the pyramid • most biomass at the base of the pyramid Ecology Basics 9/6/16 8:19 PM Ecology Basics 9/6/16 8:19 PM Food Chain • looking at energy as it moves through an ecosystem Food Web Ecology Basics 9/6/16 8:19 PM Communities • the living part of an ecosystem • plant community and animal community = biotic community o ex predator community • vary in space “biomes” o ex Mojave desert vs Sahara desert • biomes o definition of how a community is structured in different parts of the world o driven by climate • succession o when communities vary over time o pioneer community § step # 1 § first communities in process of succession o climax community § the final step in succession Ecology Basics 9/6/16 8:19 PM § last communities in process of succession o primary succession § occurs where no community previously existed o secondary succession § occurs where there are remnants of a previous community Important terms • niche o The functional role of an organism considered in the environment in which it lives o its “job” • range of tolerance o a range of conditions a specific organism tolerate o temperature, humans, water/dry, pH • optimum range o best range of conditions for a specific organism to exist • generalist Ecology Basics 9/6/16 8:19 PM o greater range of optimal range • specialist smaller range of optimal range
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