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CJ 433- Week 3- Chapter 4

by: Chelsey Smith

CJ 433- Week 3- Chapter 4 CJ 433

Chelsey Smith
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

These notes cover different forms of evidence including direct and circumstantial evidence, along with various substitutes for evidence.
Evidence Search & Seizure
Robert Whitacre
Class Notes
Criminal Justice, Evidence, search, Seizure
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsey Smith on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 433 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Robert Whitacre in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Evidence Search & Seizure in Criminal Justice at University of Southern Mississippi.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
CJ 433­ Evidence, Search and Seizure September 7, 2016 Chapter 4: Forms of Evidence Types of Evidence  Real Evidence­ physical evidence, demonstrative evidence involves summaries or  displays and diagrams not collected at the scene  Testimonial Evidence­ words of a witness on a stand  Direct Evidence­ connects individual to crime­ no inference or reasoning is required to  arrive at the conclusion drawn from evidence  o Example: witness who sees defendant committing a crime, suspect confesses  Circumstantial Evidence­ loosely connects individual to a crime­ requires an inference to  be made between the evidence and the conclusion drawn from it­ indirectly proves a fact o Accused’s ability to commit a crime­ individual has knowledge or skills to  commit the crime­ example: bomb building o Intent/Motive­ example: recent life insurance policy taken out on deceased, drug  dealer vs user based on evidence in possession o Consciousness of Guilt­ actions that portray a guilty consciousness­ example:  running from the scene of a crime, concealing or destroying evidence o Evidence involving victim­ evidence made against the victim to give situational  background­ example: self­defense case where the victim is a bully  Rape Shield Law­ evidence of victim’s promiscuity cannot be used against victim to show innocence of defendant­ mainly harasses or embarrasses  the victim o Evidence involving character of suspect­ credibility­ should the witness or suspect be believed? Defining character­ can be brought up in limited evidence unless  defendant raises that issue first­ such as previous offenses­ prosecution cannot use definition of character because it focuses on prejudice instead of facts of the  current crime Substitutes for Evidence  Judicial Notice­ the use by a court of a fact that has not been proved by ordinary  evidence­ well established facts do not have to be proven by experts­ has to be  indisputable, common knowledge that both parties agree upon­ establish well known  places/ habits­ example: words and meanings of “need a fix” “hit a lick”      Elements of Judicial Notice   Indisputable­ “the earth is round”  Common knowledge component­ “red octagon with stop meaning is  known”  Ascertainable fact­ can be looked up “almanac, map, atlas”   Presumptions­ requires someone to draw conclusions, rebuttable­ example: presumption  of sanity, innocence, against suicide, death after a lengthy unexplained absence  Infer­ does not require conclusions to be drawn by jury from facts o Certain inferences are impermissible o Right to remain silent­ cannot be used as evidence because the defendant  exercised their 5  amendment o Right to council­ fact that defendant asked for a lawyer cannot be brought against  th defendant who exercised their 6  amendment   Stipulation­ important in law­ agreement between attorneys over fact “my client is a  convicted felon” so prosecution will not put on evidence against defendant­ speeds up  trial


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