New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

BIOS Week 3

by: Kaitlyn Meinzer

BIOS Week 3 BIOS 1000

Kaitlyn Meinzer

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Animal Diversity Week Three, On First Exam
Animal Diversity
Patrick Hassett
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Animal Diversity

Popular in Department

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Meinzer on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOS 1000 at Ohio University taught by Patrick Hassett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views.


Reviews for BIOS Week 3


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/09/16
BIOS Week 3 • The path to animals ◦ Key its that some protozoan can form colonies, groups of individuals that remain connected ◦ Some individuals become specialized depending on where they are in the colony • Choanoflagellates ◦ Stalked colony ◦ Individuals embedded in gentinous mass ◦ (Note body) • Angel Chains ◦ Algal cells can remain attached and form long chains ◦ Feature that distinguished colony from simple chain of cells is specialization ◦ Some cells in colony can specialize for particular task • Hypothetical metazoan • Trichoplax ◦ Discovered in 1880's on the glass walls of an aquarium, little is know about them ◦ They are early seen in their natural habitat ◦ Contain only a few thousand cells, and only four types of cells ◦ The lease DNA of any animal ◦ Simple or Simplified? ‣ Is Trichoplax a simple animal ancestral to multi-celled animals or has it lost complexity? ‣ Many of the simplest animals are parasitic, and are related to more complex animals like flatworms • Major Subdivisions of the Animal Kingdom ◦ 'Near' animals ‣ Protozoans ‣ Include sponges, as well as Tricoplax ◦ 'True' Animals ‣ Eumetazoans • The Animal Kingdom: Metazoan • Sponges ◦ Same species, different shape ◦ No symmetry is present ◦ A sponge is a loose association of cells ◦ Body form affected by environmental conditions: current speed and direction, temperature and food (affect growth rate), adjacent structures • How do sponges work ◦ By pumping water through their body ◦ Flagellated cells inside the sponges create currents ◦ Those cells and others capture small particles of food from the water • Smallest Sponges ◦ A simple tube design ◦ Design does work when the sponges get larger ◦ A simple wall with large size would create stagnant zone in the middle, so the design only reaches about 1mm in size • Largest Sponges ◦ Laced with canals ◦ Chambers with flagellated cells • Spicules ◦ Skeletal elements of a sponge • Spongin ◦ Skeletal material ◦ (Bath sponge) • Why sponges are important ◦ Water clarity ‣ Sponges filter an enormous amount of water ◦ Pharmaceuticals- sponges produce chemicals that deter predators and organisms that might try to grow over them ‣ The chemicals are also used to stop predators from eating them ◦ These chemicals are being investigated for their value as drugs • Sponges as bioremediation tools ◦ A simple sponge can filter 100's of gallons of water per day ◦ Can remove about 75% of bacteria in that water ◦ May be useful in bioremediation of sewage effluent, runoff, aquaculture systems • Glass Sponges ◦ Often found on coral reefs and in the deep ocean ◦ • Giant Barrel Sponge ◦ Can grow to 6' in diameter and live 1000's of years • Predatory Sponges ◦ A few predatory species have been found ◦ Capture tiny prey with hooked spicules, then grow over it • Boring Sponges ◦ Bioerosion by boring demosponges ◦ Have chambers inside • Microciona Prolifera ◦ Redbeard Sponge (example) ◦ Microciona cell reaggregation ◦ Sponge faced though cheesecloth ◦ Sponge cells group back together • Communication ◦ Key feature of the evolution of early animals is cell to cell communication ◦ A sponge cell can recognize that another cell is the same species • Phylum Cnidaria ‣ Stinging Animals ‣ First "true" animals ◦ Cnidarian Novelties ‣ New to the animal kingdom ‣ Radial symmetry- defined form ‣ Nerves- behavior ‣ Muscles- movement ‣ Two tissue layers: Epidermis and Gastrodermis ◦ Body Forms ‣ Polyp • Typically attaches to a surface ‣ Medusae ◦ Muscles ‣ Muscles are extensions of epithelial (skin) cells ◦ Nerve Net ‣ A net of nerves that cover the body ‣ Thick around the mouth ‣ Very useful b/c they don't have a brain ◦ Cniocytes ‣ On stimulation cnidocyte swells, forcing lid to open, releasing barbed tread ‣ Discharge= 3ms, an acceleration of 40,000 g ‣ The image is a sequence showing cnidocyte contacting and penetrating skin of prey ◦ Reproduction ‣ May be clonal by budding of polyp stage • Genetically identical to parent ‣ Also have sexual phase with egg and sperm producing larvae that grows into polyp • Three main groups of Cnidarians ◦ Hydrozoans • Exhibit both polyp and medusa forms • Budding of polyp leads to asexual reproduction (cloning) • Budding of medusa leads to sexual reproduction • Budding polyps and medusa remain attached to form colonies • Note that digestive systems of colony members are interconnected ‣ Zooids • Are individual colony members with specialized role ◦ Feeding Zooids- more common type ◦ Defensive Zooid- tentacle armed with cnidocytes, no mouth ◦ Reproductive Zooid- No mouth ◦ Swimming bells and floats ‣ Hydroid Colony • Siphonophores- colonial hydrozoans • Colonies are made up of highly specialized Zooids • Some species can grow over 100' long (deep sea) • Portuguese Man-O-War ◦ Jelly Fish • Food captured with tentacles and oral arms, carried to mouth • Digested in stomach, then carried to rest of body by narrow canals • Have both medusae and polyp stages ‣ Box Jellies • Jellyfish with four sides • Rapid swimmers, active at night • Includes potentially lethal Sea Wasps • Have numerous eyes, some capable of forming image ‣ Jellyfish in the news • Jellyfish populations have been exploding in recent years • Japan has been plagued by giant Nomura jellyfish that can weigh over 400 pounds • Population explosions ◦ Crowding fishing nets in Japan • Jelly fish stop he beaches ‣ Why the population explosions? • Do warmer water promote fast growth? • Loss of predators? • Loss of competitors for the plankton they feed on? • Uncertain at this point ◦ Anthozoans • Anemone and corals • Anemones are polyps ‣ Reaction/ Expansion • Retractor muscles can retract tentacles and compress body • Pumping by cilia that line throat reflreinflates polyp ‣ Corals and relatives • Stony Corals- Are the familiar corals that build coral reefs • Sea Fans- Have hard, branch-like structure • Soft Coals- Have no hard part, fibrous structure • Sea Pens- Are colonial form that anchors in sand


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.