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World Architecture: Industrial Revolution to Modern (ARC 318L) Week 2 Notes

by: Luca Tomescu

World Architecture: Industrial Revolution to Modern (ARC 318L) Week 2 Notes ARC 318L

Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > Architecture > ARC 318L > World Architecture Industrial Revolution to Modern ARC 318L Week 2 Notes
Luca Tomescu

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These notes cover the two lectures from this week, as well as a few things we talked about in discussion.
World Architecture: Industrial Revolution to Present
Dr. Richard Cleary
Class Notes
Architecture, history
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luca Tomescu on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARC 318L at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Richard Cleary in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see World Architecture: Industrial Revolution to Present in Architecture at University of Texas at Austin.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
World Architecture: IndustrialRevolution to Present (Week 1) Tuesday,September6,2016 Romanticism  Romanticismtookholdinthe1830s throughoutallformsofart  Historicismand theGothicRevival o Historicism:Applicationsofhistory;AKA architectsdrawingonhistory o 18 – early20 centuries:defaultsettingfor highstyle architecturewas Classicism  Classicismwas a traditionofarchitecturalstyledefinedinthe Renaissanceandoverlater centuries o Neoclassicism:inspiredbyarchaeologywithselectiondrivenbythe desireto evoke connectionsbetweenthepastandpresent  VirginiaState CapitolbasedonanancientRomantemple  Facades ofallkindsofbuildingscopiedfromthoseofGreco-Roman buildings o Historicismwas influencedbythe Knowledge Revolution  Peoplebecame more educated  museumswere erected  New in18 centuryarchitecture: 1. Archaeologybecame a science, so architectspursueddetailed understandingsofstructures 2. Archaeologyinservice ofthestate ledto acquiringvaststores of newknowledge 3. Scholarstooktripstolookatancientarchitecture o AestheticCategories(Beautiful,Sublime,Picturesque)providedaframeworkfor applyinghistoricalknowledgetonewworks o Strandsof GothicRevival:  PersonalTaste:People were fascinatedbythe Gothicworld  Nationalism:Formationofstatenationalismbringsupquestionsof identity  Commercialfashion:Trytoattract people  Religiousidealismandsocialreform:Precedent ofchurches  Critiqueofarchitecturalprinciples:Associatedwiththeother points o Horace Walpolewas so fascinatedbyGothicarchitecturethathe builtacountry housereflectingtheGothicstyle o WilliamThomasBeckfordwas the wealthiestmaninEnglandin18 – 19 th th centuries  CommissionedFonthillAbbey,whichis Gothic mostlypicturesquebut alsosublimedueto immensescale  Beckford was in a hurry,so the tower collapsedseveraltimesduring construction  In 1825, the tower fellfor thefinaltime after Beckford soldit  Thiswas a free interpretationofGothicarchitecture  HousesofParliament in London (1836-1860) o Originallya conglomerationofbuildingscobbledtogetheroverthecenturies o In 1834, there was a terriblefire andthe lasthousewas demolished o Insteadofgoingto thedefaultofClassicism,peoplearguedagainst it  The French didClassicalarchitecture(BritishhatedtheFrench)  RomanCatholicchurcheswere Classical(Britishwere Protestant)  WantedsomethingtrulyBritish,whichendedupreflectingthe late Gothicera o CharlesBarryworkedwith A.W.N.Pugin,who was knowledgeableaboutGothic architecture o Rationalfaçadewithsymmetricalelementsandregularlyrepeatedsections  FallsintoorderlyapproachofClassicism  BUT the characteris in the formsand languageoflateGothicarchitecture o Pugin designedtheinteriorwithelementsofan earliertime o The newbuildinghasGothiccharacteryet followsmanyClassicalconventions o Buildingsitsona huge concrete platform(unreinforced) earlyuseofconcrete as a buildingmaterial o Roofconsistsofcast andwroughtiron,as do theroofpanelsandotherelements  Use ofemerging newtechnology o Coolingwas mechanizedvery earlyattemptat a ventilationsystem o Buildinglooksofthe pastyet is very much ofthe present o Part ofa trendof lookingintothepastandrepresentingancientarchitecturein governmentbuildings  Midland Grand Hotel,London o GeorgeGilbertScott adaptedGothicformstoa moderndesign  Religious Idealismand Social Reform o A.W.N.Pugin madea bookshowinga “CatholicTown”in 1440 anda modern, industrializedcityin 1840 o He was unhappywiththeindustrializationandbelievedthatspirituallifewas beingdrainedbymoney o Pugin builtina waynot taintedbymoney o Creatednewchurches inGothicstyle to reflect the religiousparityofthatperiod o St.BarnabasChurch(Catholic,1841-1844)meant toreconnect peoplewith spirituality o Pugin wrote The True Principles ofthe Pointed Arch  There mustbe a reasonfor every structuralelement  Ornamentmustbe a logicalextensionofthestructure o True architecturalprinciples=Gothic= Christian  Gothicstyle was theonlyoneto achievePugin’s two rules from hisessay  All Saints’ Church,Margaret Street, London o CompletedbyWilliamButterfieldin1859 o Builtas partofa reform movementwith the Anglicanchurchto make architecturethatwouldallowpeopletoreconnect withthe Christianspirit o ParalleledtheideaofPugin o There was integrityandspiritualityinGothicarchitecture o The church hasrichnessofcolor andpatternthroughcreativeuse ofbrickand othermaterials  Integratedornamentationintotheactualstructurethroughpainted bricks o Churchis uniqueforthe beautyandqualityofmaterials,makingfor a strong character o Causeda great dealofcontroversy  Some thoughtitwas uglyandotherssawit as beautiful  Perfect exampleoftakingoldprinciplesandcreatingsomethingnew  Why GothicArchitecture? o Gothicarchitecturereflecteda muchmore spiritualtime o Gothicarchitecturehadstructuralintegrity  Ruskin and Viollet o The preeminentarchitecturalcriticsduringthe 19 century inEnglandand France, respectively o Ruskinwas read bycommonersandotherallover Europe(translatedinmany languages) o Violletwrote for architectsandeducatedcommoners;also wrotefor newspapers  Ultimately,theydidhaverather similaraudiences o Ruskinwrote Stones of Venice aboutGothicarchitecture;includedhisdrawings o Violletalsodrewwell,andhe usedhis skillto analyzeMedievalarchitecture o Ruskinwas originallyanartist;highcritical ofCapitalism o Viollettrainedasan architect,where he got an understandingofMedieval supportsystems  Became devotedto thepreservationofmonuments o Ruskinwas an architecturalcriticwhileViolletwas interestedinthe historical studyof architecture o BOTH laidfoundationsofhistoricalpreservation o RuskinsaidthatGothicarchitecturewas honestwhilecurrent architecturewas not o Violletwas more comfortablewiththe present;he justthoughtarchitectsshould applyoldprinciplestomodernarchitecture o Logic from MedievalandGothicwere usedinnew buildingswithnew technologies Tuesday,September6,2016 DiscussionSection  Ruskin Essay o The elementsofa buildingshoulddirectlycontributetosupportingit  should never be solelyfor décor  Ruskin’s1 Rule:Structuraltruth o Materialsshouldpretendtobe anothermaterial nd  Ruskin’s2 Rule:Surface truth o Elementsshouldbehand-madeandreflectthelaborthatwent intothem  Ruskin’s3 Rule:Ornamentaltruth  Ruskinromanticizedlaborandhandcrafting o He’s verycontradictoryinhiswritingandhasmanyqualificationsofhispoints o To him,it’s abouttruthandmorality  Viollet Essay o More concernedwith creatinga newstyle insteadofcopyingoldones o Saidthatwe must lookto thepastto understandandfindtheprinciplesthatcan informmodernarchitecture o The benefitsofhistime were technologyandvast knowledge o Viollet’s“stuth”:contemporarybuildingsshouldreflectthesocialstate  1 Rule:Fulfillthefunctionalneedofa building  2 Rule:Materialhonesty(similartoRuskin) o ViolletandRuskinhadthe commoncrisis ofallthese newmaterials,functions, etc.  Overwhelmedwith newcapabilitiesand tryingtoapplywhattheyknow from the past o Concernedwithbalanceofmass,AKA equilibrium  Providesvarietyandfunctionalitywheresymmetrydoesnot o Violletwanteda methodtoarchitecture Thursday,September8,2016 Colonialism:TheBritish in India  British in India o Indiawas controlledbyBritainuntilitgainedindependencein1947 o In 1916, BritaindirectlyadministeredpartsofIndia;the rest were states with nominalautonomyboundtotheempire bytreaty(indirectrule) o Some peoplewere displacedandotherwere broughtto center placesfor the extractionofresources o Indiahasa very diversearchitecturalpast  Manybeliefs,approaches,and stylesofarchitecture o The BritishEastIndiaCompanyestablishedafort andworkshopsinCalcuttain 1690  In 1702, it was designatedthecapitalofthe Indiancolony o EastIndiaCompanyhaditsheadquartersinLondoninaClassical-stylebuilding  Companywas charteredin1600 andcontrolledIndiauntil1858 o Calcuttawasa smalltowninitiallyontheHooghlyRiver on theGanges Delta  Quicklygrew as a center of administrationandcommerce  BuiltFort William,whichwas essentiallybigcity  Inside,therewas a huge governmenthousethatlookedcompletely British;actuallyClassicalinstyle  Designed andbuiltbyCharlesWyattin 1799-1802  Very similartoKendlestonHall,butthe GovernmentHousehadmuch more openroomsto helpkeep them coolduringthe hotIndiansummers  Down the street,there was the Writers’building,whichwas notadapted to thehot climate  No shadeprovided,blankfaçadethatreflectedthe exact British style withvirtuallynoadaptations  St.John’s church inIndialooksvery similartoSt.Martin’sin theField (London)  St.John’s hadsome adaptationssuchasvery large windowsand an openspacefor ventilation o Local politicalauthoritiesandwealthybusinessmenhadarchitecturetoshow theirclose relationshiptotheBritish  HazarduariPalacawas designedbyDuncanMcCleodfor NawabNazim HumayunJah (1829 – 1837)  Looks justlike a Britishbuilding;allowsrulerto identifywiththe British o DakshineswarTemple(1847) was commissionedbya wealthywidowwho hada visioncommandingherto buildatempleto Kali  Navaratnastyleoftemplecommonin Bengalfrom theearly1700s distinctiveforthe ninetowers o BritishgovernmentabolishedtheEastIndiaCompanyin1857and tookover direct rule  Queen VictoriaproclaimedEmpressofIndiain1877  The era ofdirect Britishruleuntil1947is knownas the Raj o Greaterinvestmentininfrastructure(railroadsystemfor peopleandcommerce) o More systematicdevelopmentofpoliticaladministrativestructure o Britishintroducedtheirowntraditionsandinstitutions  BombayUniversityestablishedin1857; largelyfundedbywealthyIndian merchants  Createda class ofwealthyIndianstaughttobe British o CivilWar inUS disruptedthecottonindustrythere,motivatingtheBritishto reinvestin theIndiancottonindustry o Vast wealthcreated for theBritishandfor Indiansinvolvedinthetrade o New buildingtypesin Indiafundedbyrich Indianswhowantedto spreadthe Britishstyle o G.G.Scott helpedbuildBostonUniversity  He sawIndianarchitectureasvery flexible  Had respect for Indiancultureandconventions  Used eclecticsources (French andEnglish);great dealof Gothicinfluence  TranslatedGothicbuildingelementstotheclimate  a buildingthat couldcirculateair andeffectively“breathe”  Open areasallowedairto blowfrom theexteriorthroughthe interior  Used a doubleroofsystemfrom the Gothicstyle tothe University ConvocationHallhedesigned o Vaultsabovethe groundfloorwith a protectiveroofabove that,leavingan emptyspace for heat todissipate o Britishquestionediftherewas a betterapproachtoinventingarchitecturalform for the newbuildingsthatBritish-Indiansneed  Decided to doa synthesisbetweenIndianandBritishmodesofdesign andapplythemto Europeanbuildingtypes  Led to a very balancedeclecticstylethatpicked andchose elementsfrom bothstyles o CharlesMantdesignedMayoCollege in1875  “Indo-Saracenic”style inspiredbyMughalarchitectureinthe area o Bombay-Baroda&CentralIndiaRailwayadministrativeofficesareanother exampleofthiseclecticism (designedbyStevens)  BritishsoughttounderstandtheculturesandarchitectureofIndia  BritishpickedarchitecturethatTHEY thoughtwouldbe representativeofIndia  NaivelytoldIndianstheirownhistory  Stevens andhisassistantsconsideredMughalarchitecturethemost expressiveofIndia  Adoptedfeaturessuchas domesandtowers to modernbuilding types  Stevens alsoincorporatedfeaturesofVenetianGothic o Gets hotthereduringthe summer, so thearchitecture matchedthe climate,which was similarto India’s o In 1911, King GeorgeV transferredthe capitalofBritishIndiafrom Calcuttato Delhi  Commissionedengineerstobuildagrand,newcapitalthatwas master plannedwithwideroadsandopenspaces  Meantto be the center of BritishauthorityinIndia  Key buildingwastheViceroy’s house,whichhousedtheheadof administrationinIndia  Buildingitselfisrathersensitiveto Indianarchitecturalstyle o Britishwere fascinatedbythestrange worldofIndia  There was a fashiondimensiontowardsthingsconsideredIndian  ImportationofIndianarchitecturetoBritain  Out ofIndia: TheBungalow o The word comes from India o Britishsawthatthesewere well-adaptedtolifeinthe region o Less wealthyBritishpeopleinIndiaborrowedcertain qualitiesfromthe bungalow(low,large porches) andmodeledtheirhomesonbungalows o The newAnglobungalowisan approachtobuildingahouse  One storyandoverhangingroofcoveringlarge porches o Bythe end ofthe1880s, the word Bungalowwas appliedto housesinBritain  Had the basicelementsbutalsomade to lookveryBritish  Later exportedtothe U.S. and movedaroundtheentireglobe


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