Psych 1101 Ch3 Notes (Part 2)
Psych 1101 Ch3 Notes (Part 2) Psyc 1101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hanna Notetaker on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Kara A. Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psycology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Psych 1101 Chapter 3 (Part 2) How We Hear? >Sound waves: Vibrations in the air >Features of Sound: -Pitch: Frequency (high, medium, low tones) -Timbre: Purity of wavelengths; Quality of wavelengths (long wavelength, low frequency; short wavelength, high frequency) -Loudness: Amplitude (measured in decibels; absolute threshold = 0) Theories of Pitch >Pitch= Frequency -Higher frequency, higher pitch -Lower frequency, lower pitch >Place Theory -The pitch is determined by the location of the stimulation on the basilar membrane -If it is near the oval window (located at the entrance of the cochlea), the pitch is higher -If it at the opposite end, the pitch is lower >Frequency Theory -Pitch is the rate of vibration -Faster vibrations cause higher pitches >Volley Principle - Frequencies between 400Hz-4000Hz cause hair cells, or auditory neurons, to fire in a volley pattern -Cells take turns firing because each cell cannot fire at fast rates Perception and Constancies >Perception -How you recognize, organize, and interpret outside stimuli into something meaningful -Based On: -Past Experiences -Expectations >Constancies -Three Types: -Size Constancy: Size is perceived as the same regardless of distance. -Ex: If there is someone standing in front of you and then they move farther away, the size of the person will remain the same to you. -Shape Constancy: An object is perceived in having the same shape regardless of its movement/action. -Ex: When a door is closed, you perceive that it is a rectangle. If the door is opened, you still perceive the door as a rectangle. -Color Constancy: An object remains the same color even though there is a change in the environment/sensory data. -Ex: Outside in the bright light, you see someone wearing a blue shirt. When you go inside, you see the same person in the same blue shirt. The lighting is dimmer inside compared to outside, but you still perceive that the color of the shirt is blue. Even though there are different light waves bouncing off the shirt due to the different lighting, you can still see that the shirt is blue. Gestalt Principles >How we group and perceive objects >Law of Proximity: We tend to group things that are near each other. -Ex: >Law of Similarity: Similarities in color and texture indicate that objects are of a group -Ex: >Law of Connectedness: If you someway connect things together, they are seen as being the same object/group. -Ex: >Law of Continuity: This is where you group objects that are going in the same direction. -Ex: You perceive that this ‘x’ was drawn like this: >Law of Closure: Filling in missing parts of a line or figure -Ex: You perceive this as a square even though the corners are missing >Law of Common Fate: When we see things move together, we tend to group objects Depth Perception >This is our ability to see the world in 3D >There are two cues for perceiving depth -Monocular Cues: -Linear Perspective: Parallel lines converge farther away -Relative Size: If we see two objects that have the same shape, but one is located closer than the other, we perceive that the farther object is smaller. -Texture Gradient: It is easier to see the texture of closer objects. -Interposition: If something is blocking part of another object, we perceive that the object being blocked is farther than the other object. -Atmospheric Perspective: Objects seem to be hazier when farther away -Binocular Cues: -Convergence: The angle for rotation is greater for objects that are close compared to objects that are farther away. -Retinal Disparity: The location of where an image falls on your retina is different for each eye. -Close object = big difference -Far object = slight difference
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